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Anthropology and Sociology are closely related social science disciplines. They study the ways in which people live together under various social and cultural conditions. By exploring the multifaceted dimensions of human societies, they seek to understand human behavior, social interactions, and institutional structures in all their diversity.

The Anthropology and Sociology Department offers disciplinary majors in Anthropology, Sociology, and Anthropology Sociology; the department offers minors in Anthropology and in Sociology. All courses to be credited toward any major or minor in the department must be passed with a grade of C- or better.

Anthropology Policy on Courses Transferred In to the Major/Minor:
1) Students participating in an HWS term abroad program may count one “traditional regional culture” course towards an anthropology major, even if the course is not taught by an anthropologist. Limit—one such course per student. The student will consult with their anthropology adviser about whether this course will count within or outside the student’s area of specialization.

2) Anthropology majors/minors must take the core courses (ANTH 273, 306, 465 and the 300- level seminars) at HWS. No exceptions.

3) Students who take anthropology courses at US accredited institutions that HWS accepts for graduation credit will receive credit toward their anthropology major or minor for that course(s) provided that an appropriate faculty member has checked the course description/syllabus against our own course offerings (with the intention of not allowing students to take essentially the same course, albeit under slightly different titles, both here and elsewhere).

4) Students who take anthropology courses outside the US, even on HWS programs (with the exception listed in the first item above), taught by instructors from non-US areas, must petition the department if seeking to count a course for anthropology credit, providing thorough documentation of the course content and instructor qualifications. 

Sociology Policy on Courses Transferred In to the Major/Minor:
1) Students can take SOC 100 elsewhere.

2) Sociology majors/minors must take the required core courses (SOC 211, 212, and 300) at HWS. Exception: they have taken the course here at least once but have not achieved the minimum grade of C- or better. Students must get the approval of the department chair and the faculty member(s) teaching the course at HWS before transferring in a substitute core course taken elsewhere.

3) Sociology majors must take SOC 464/5 (senior seminar) and the 300-level seminar at HWS. No exceptions.

4) Students must petition for permission to count 200-level sociology electives taken elsewhere. The petition should include a full course syllabus as well as information about the instructor’s credentials (i.e., the field in which they hold a Ph.D.). The department’s usual practice is not to count courses that are taught by faculty without a sociology degree. The department chair will circulate the student’s petition to the department faculty for consideration.

disciplinary, 11 courses
A 100-level course in the student’s required primary specialization of either (1) sociocultural and linguistic anthropology or (2) archaeology and physical anthropology; ANTH 273, ANTH 306, and ANTH 465; one anthropology course on a geographic area in the primary specialization; and six additional anthropology electives of which at least two must be at the 300-level. Four of the electives must be in the primary specialization and two outside the primary specialization. One 200 or higher level course in sociology may count as an elective outside the primary specialization. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted toward the major.

disciplinary, 6 courses
One course in cultural anthropology and five additional courses in anthropology, of which at least three must be at the 200-level and at least two at the 300-level or higher (ANTH 450 does not fulfill this requirement). All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted toward the minor.

disciplinary, 11 courses
SOC 100; SOC 211; SOC 212; SOC 300; SOC 465; and six additional sociology courses at the 200-level or higher, at least one of which must be at the 300-level. One 200-level or higher anthropology course can substitute for a 200-level sociology elective course. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the major.

disciplinary, 6 courses
SOC 100; either SOC 211, SOC 212 or 300; and four additional sociology courses. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

disciplinary, 11 courses
ANTH 110; SOC 100; any four of the five courses from department core offerings (ANTH 273, ANTH 306, SOC 211, SOC 212, SOC 300); a 400-level seminar in either anthropology or sociology; two electives in anthropology and two electives in sociology that together form a cluster, to be chosen in consultation with the adviser. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the major.

Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology
ANTH 110 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
ANTH 115 Language and Culture
ANTH 205 Race, Class, Ethnicity
ANTH 211 Power, Protest, and Politics
ANTH 212 NGOs and Development
ANTH 213 Cultures of India
ANTH 220 Sex Roles
ANTH 221 Human Rights of Indigenous Peoples
ANTH 222 Native American Religions
ANTH 227 Intercultural Communication
ANTH 246 Stratagems and Spoils
ANTH 247 Urban Anthropology
ANTH 271 Jobs, Power, Capital
ANTH 279 Diagnosing the World
ANTH 280 Environment and Culture
ANTH 282 North American Indians
ANTH 295 Village India
ANTH/AFS 296 Africa: Beyond Crisis, Poverty, and Aid
ANTH 297 Latin America
ANTH 302 Borders and Walls
ANTH 319 Feminist and Political Anthropology
ANTH 323 Ethnographies of Capitalism
ANTH 330 Anthropology of Creativity
ANTH 331 Rethinking Families
ANTH 340 Anthropology of the Global Commons
ANTH 341 Making Babies
ANTH 352 Builders and Seekers
ANTH 354 Food, Meaning, Voice
ANTH 362 Evolution and Culture
ANTH 370 Life Histories

Archaeology and Physical Anthropology
ANTH 102 World Prehistory
ANTH 206 Early Cities
ANTH 208 Archaeology of Japan and China
ANTH 209 Women and Men in Prehistory
ANTH 210 Prehistoric Ecology
ANTH 228 Physical Anthropology
ANTH 285 Primate Behavior
ANTH 290 Pharaohs, Fellahin, Fantasy
ANTH 326 Ancient Mesoamerican Urbanism
ANTH 342/442 Ancient World Systems
ANTH 362/462 Evolution and Culture

ANTH 102 World Prehistory This course seeks to replace myths of "killer apes" and "ancient astronauts" with archaeological reality. A broad survey of archaeological knowledge of both New and Old World prehistory provides a framework for analysis of major transitions in cultural evolution and of selected archaeological puzzles, such as the enigmatic markings of the Peruvian desert near Nazca. This course is designed for non-majors who want a general understanding of what "happened" in prehistory. The course is also suitable for prospective majors who need an overview of the archaeological record against which to set more specialized courses in archaeology. No prerequisites. (Nicholas, offered annually)

ANTH 110 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology This course explores the anthropological understanding of human society through ethnographic case studies of particular societies. In the holistic approach of anthropology, the interrelations of kinship, economics, politics, and religion are stressed. Special emphasis is also placed on anthropological theories of human behavior and the wide range of creative solutions to the problem of social living devised by various cultures of the world. (Staff, offered each semester)

ANTH 115 Language and Culture This course introduces students to the study of language as a natural phenomenon and as a human creation. Different approaches to the analysis and study of language as a social and symbolic system are presented. Topics include the Sapir Whorf hypothesis (the idea that language determines how and what we think), the relationship between language and gender, how social forces alter the shape of language, and what language tells us about the structure of the human mind. (Anderson, offered annually)

ANTH 205 Race, Class, and Ethnicity This course explores race, class, and ethnicity through comparative study of the diverse experiences, histories, and life conditions of indigenous peoples, immigrant groups, diasporas, religious minorities, and oppressed classes in various local and global contexts. Analyzed and compared are the conscious and systemic social, cultural, economic, and political forces that have developed in history and function at present to maintain unequal access to wealth, power, and privilege according to differences of race, ethnicity, and class. Also examined are the various modes of thought and social action oppressed peoples have employed for political empowerment, economic justice, cultural survival, integrity of identity, and recognition of human rights. (Anderson, offered occasionally)

ANTH 206 Early Cities This course deals with the manner in which humankind first came to live in cities. Early urbanism is viewed within the context of the general origins of complex society in both the Old and New Worlds. Explanatory models, such as those emphasizing population pressure and trade as causal mechanisms for the growth of cities, are reviewed. This course provides the student with a knowledge of early urban forms in different parts of the world, as well as familiarity with the methods used by archaeologists to study such phenomena. ANTH 102 is helpful background but is not required. (Nicholas, offered alternate years)

ANTH 208 Archaeology of Japan and China This course surveys the archaeology of East Asia from the Paleolithic through the era of classical civilizations. Special attention is given to the growth and development of cities in this region, but other aspects of the record are not neglected. Students study the "underground army" of the first emperor of China, the monumental mounded tombs of early Japan, the extraordinary pottery of the Jomon culture, and more. Students discuss the overall trajectories of China and Japan in a social evolutionary perspective. (Nicholas, offered every two to three years)

ANTH 209 Women and Men in Prehistory Until recently, much of world prehistory has been written as if only men were participants in the evolution of culture. Women for the most part have been invisible to archaeology. In the last decade, however, archaeologists have begun to focus explicitly on the issue of gender in prehistory. This course examines some of the older male-centric models, as well as some of the innovative (and controversial) new work, endeavoring to build a picture of the past in which both men and women are seen to be actors. Cases are chosen from a mix of archaeological periods and settings but currently include the controversy over the gender of the occupant of Tomb 7 at Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico. (Nicholas, offered every 2-3 years)

ANTH 210 Prehistoric Ecology Karl Butzer has said that when we study human ecology, we look at the "dynamic interface between environment, technology, and society." This course takes an ecological perspective to the prehistory of humankind, finding that many events in the past can be understood more clearly when ecological analyses are undertaken. Much of the course centers on the radical shift in human relationship to the environment that took place when hunting and gathering was replaced by domestication of plants and animals. Ecologically oriented research on the trajectories of the great ancient civilizations is also studied. (Nicholas, offered alternate years)

ANTH 212 NGOs and Development This course introduces students to critical research on NGOs in a variety of geographic contexts and invites students to consider the usefulness of approaching NGOs as discursive constellations, as arising from the interplay of international and national policy, as cultural practices, and as products of and producing globally circulating discourses of development. The course asks, what are the everyday practices constituting NGOs and development practices, and in what ways do development practices compel new types of relationships? Further, the course asks about how anthropologists study these phenomena, and how anthropological research might speak to policy concerns and issues of social justice. Prerequisites: Students must have taken ANTH 110 or declared an anthropology major or minor, international relations major or minor, sociology major, or anthropology-sociology major, or have permission of instructor. (J. Rodriguez, offered alternate years)

ANTH 213 Cultures of India This course introduces students to the ongoing legacies of colonialism, nationalism, and to the centrality of gender to anti-colonial and nationalist discourses in India. We explore theorizations of caste, popular stereotypes about India, and debates over how to approach these phenomena. The course attends to the place of India in the international hierarchy of nation-states and to struggles around "development" and "modernization," processes that articulate the Indian government with international policy. The course addresses contemporary politics, with special attention to India's emergence as a superpower with nuclear capabilities, multinational corporations, and local struggles over the shape of everyday life. (J. Rodriguez, offered annually)

ANTH 220 Sex Roles What do "sex," "sexuality" and "gender" mean, and how have anthropologists dealt with these concepts?  This course will explore ethnographic approaches to sexuality and gender, and the complex relations between sexual and gendered practices, identities, and roles.  We will focus our studies on ways that sex and sexuality have intersected with traditional anthropological concerns about the developmental process and rites of passage as related to kinship, family, and community.  We will examine ethnographic studies, both US and non-US focused, to assess how cross-cultural studies of sexuality and gender have contributed to more complex understandings of these areas of human experience. A focus on ethnographic studies will be complemented by films and readings in other bodies of literature that have informed sexuality and gender studies.

ANTH 221 Human Rights of Indigenous People Throughout its history, anthropology has been committed to and active in maintaining the rights of indigenous peoples against the destructive global forces of nation-state power, racist ideologies, assimilation, and industrial resource appropriation. To develop an informed, up-to-date, and critical understanding of these issues, the course will offer an overview of the contemporary state of indigenous peoples and then guide students in pursuing on-line research of Internet sites established by indigenous peoples themselves, anthropological groups, international human rights organizations, world news services, national governments, and the United Nations. (Anderson, offered alternate years)

ANTH 222 Native American Religions This course explores Native American sacred ways of speaking, acting, knowing, and creating in diverse historical and contemporary culture; contexts. Indigenous views and practices are studied as a groundwork for interpretative and theoretical formulations about the role of religion Native American history, culture, and language. Native American religious traditions are further comprehended as dynamic modes of survival, empowerment, and renewal in the face of Euro-American domination, past and present. Upon these understandings, indigenous, anthropological, and Euro-American domination perspectives on religion are brought into balanced dialogue and exchange. (Anderson, offered alternate years)

ANTH 228 Physical Anthropology Physical anthropology studies humans as biological organisms (members of the Primate Order). This course provides an overview of the three major divisions of physical anthropology: anatomical and behavioral characteristics of living non-human primates; the fossil evidence for human evolution, including discussion of the origins of culture as a major adaptive characteristic of humankind; and examination of human variability today, including a discussion of race. (Nicholas, offered alternate years)

ANTH 260 Medical Anthropology The course explores the interconnected cultural, social, political, historical, and economic dimensions of illness, health, and healing in diverse human contexts. The first phase of the course involves study of the ways anthropologists research and understand human practices, meanings, and experiences related to illness and medical treatment in diverse socio-cultural contexts. A second facet is an inquiry into how anthropologically informed models and field methods can enhance biomedical approaches to knowing about and healing physical and mental illnesses. The third phase of the course is an in-depth critical analysis of the structural conditions that deny access to health care and vital resources to billions of people in the world today. Fourth, the course turns to appreciating the ways individuals and communities actively create meaning, purpose, and value in confronting suffering and structural violence. The course culminates with close study of the ways medical anthropologists today are actively addressing global and local public health inequities by providing adaptively emerging health care programs that can comprehensively improve the lives of individuals and contribute to long-term well-being of communities.  (Anderson, offered annually)

ANTH 273 Research Methods This course considers the practice, problems, and analysis of field and library research in social and cultural anthropology. It examines the theoretical background and social and political role of ethnographers, and gains an understanding of the basic skills and qualitative methods of inquiry, including participant observation, interviewing, photography, life history, ethnohistory, and network and structural analysis. Students conduct research projects locally. Prerequisite: Students must have taken at least a 100-level anthropology course, or have declared an anthropology major or minor, sociology major, or anthropology-sociology major, or have permission of the instructor. (Maiale, Annear, Spring, offered every year) Note: Majors should plan to take this course at the earliest opportunity in order to complete their programs.

ANTH 282 North American Indians The course is a survey of the experiences and sociocultural systems of past and present indigenous American peoples north of Mexico. Examined are relationships between ecological factors, subsistence patterns, modes of social organization, language, architecture, art, gender relations, ways of knowing, and religious beliefs. Also studied are historical and contemporary issues of political-legal relations, survival strategies, social activism, economic development, cultural identity, language renewal, land rights, cultural vitality, resource rights, and artistic creativity. (Anderson, offered annually)

ANTH 285 Primate Behavior Because primates are humankind's closest relatives, the study of primate behavior holds a special fascination for us. This course uses films and readings to examine the various behaviors of representative prosimians, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. It looks primarily at studies of natural primate behavior in the wild but also reviews some examples of lab research. The focus is on locomotion, subsistence, social behavior, and intelligence within an evolutionary framework. The course concludes by considering the light which study of non-human primates might shed on the evolutionary origins of our own species. (Nicholas, offered alternate years)

ANTH 290 Pharaohs, Fellahin, Fantasy: Ancient Egypt Fires the Imagination This course examines Egypt of the Pharaohs: their forebears and their descendants to the present day. Just as the Nile links Africa, Egypt, and the Mediterranean, a stream of culture links the Egyptian past to the present, and as a great river meanders, carves new banks but still flows from source to sea, so too, Egyptian culture has changed through conquest and innovation but remains, at some level, recognizable. Students explore gender and economic relations, how we know what we know, and how to recognize occult or romantic fantasy. ANTH 102 or 206 are recommended but not required. (Nicholas, offered every 2-3 years)

ANTH/AFS 296 Africa: Beyond Crisis, Poverty, and Aid This course explores the continent's diversity by reexamining broadly held stereotypes, delving into its history, and researching daily realities of modern day Africans. We will examine a cultural mosaic of different African societies from a variety of perspectives, including anthropology, politics, history, and economics. While this course focuses on small-scale communities and case studies, it also looks at wider sociocultural and geopolitical interconnections. We will ask how common representations of Africa shape our understanding of this diverse continent and gain insight into the many different ways Africans live their lives. (Annear, offered annually)

ANTH 302 Borders and Walls Our lives are shaped by borders and walls, the material and conceptual obstacles that keep some of us in and others out. Passports, immigration checkpoints, neighborhood boundaries, and constructions like the Berlin Wall impact our experiences of safety and danger, belonging and alienation, delimiting and shaping our everyday experiences. This course examines anthropological engagements with these boundaries and their ongoing production, asking about experiences of crossing, the temporal shifting of borders, what happens in the space of a former wall’s absence, how individuals navigate conceptual borders of race, class, and sexuality, as well as the visceral boundaries that mark the edges of the contemporary nation-state. How do our everyday practices give meaning and life to borders and walls? What role do state practices of surveillance, militarization and security play in creating separations in our lives, and how can we contend with them? How are nation-states and communities constituted through the demarcation of borders and boundaries? What makes borders and walls porous for particular subjects and not others? (N. Rodriguez, offered occasionally)

ANTH 306 History of Anthropological Theory This course explores the range of anthropological theory by reviewing works identified with different theoretical perspectives: 19th century evolutionism, Boasian empiricism, British social anthropology, structural idealism, cultural ecology, neo-evolutionism, practice theory, and post modernism. The emphasis is on developing the student's own ability to evaluate and use theory. Prerequisites: Several anthropology courses or permission of instructor. This is ideally a junior year course for majors and students from related fields. (Offered every Fall)

ANTH 319 Feminist and Political Anthropology This course explores anthropological engagements with feminism and what this productive and corrective engagement with feminisms and what this practices and to a critical analysis of the anthropological endeavor. This course explores how culturally produced systems of gender and power inform such processes as nation-states, History-making, commonsense, the academic enterprise, social institutions, research methods, embodies dispositions, and the (re)making of cultural worlds. Particular attention will be given to understanding what makes cultural anthropology is a political pursuit, one wrapped up in systems of inequality that include colonialism, science and scientific expertise, and the authority to write and speak. Prerequisites: Students must have taken ANTH 110 and one other 200-level or higher anthropology course or have declared an anthropology major or minor, anthropology-sociology major, or sociology major, or have permission of the instructor. (J. Rodriguez, offered alternate years)

ANTH 323 Ethnographies of Capitalism This course explores theories of capitalism and capitalist practice and debates in the discipline of anthropology about what constitutes "capitalism," as well as how one goes about studying these varieties of social relations. Emphasis is given to ethnographic examples for understanding the cultural processes that produce capitalist relations, and the cultural practices that capitalist forms of organizing produce. Particular consideration will be given to how capitalist relations operate at the intersections of race, class, gender, nationality and other social positionalities. Prerequisite: Students must have declared a major or minor in anthropology, or have permission of the instructor. (J. Rodriguez, offered alternate years)

ANTH 330 The Anthropology of Creativity Creativity flows continually through all human cultures and languages with spontaneity, novelty, and unfolding meaning. The course offers a survey of various anthropological perspectives on the power of individuality, interpretation, resistance, and imagination in the aesthetic process of creation. Considered are music, poetics, literature, and graphic arts in various historical and contemporary cultural contexts, with special attention to creolization and hybridization in the process of globalization. Prerequisites: Students must have taken at least one anthropology course, or have declared a major or minor in anthropology, a major in sociology, or a major in anthropology-sociology, or have permission of the instructor. (Anderson, offered annually)

ANTH 342 Seminar: Comparing Ancient World Systems War and Peace—which has truly characterized the world of the past? This course focuses on how ancient cultures came into contact with one another to create larger systemic networks of information exchange, trade, political interaction, and warfare.  Our study is grounded in “comparative world-systems theory,” which modifies Wallerstein’s vision of a modern World-System and extends the concept to significantly earlier time periods. We will study continuity and transformation in general world-system dynamics in antiquity, paying particular attention to effects on urbanism and warfare. The course is grounded in the study of archaeological/historical cases (for example, ancient Mesopotamia), and is discussion based; student research presentations are an integral part of the course. The first half of the course will focus on some of the broader aspects of comparative world systems theory and apply those to the case of Uruk Mesopotamia (mid-4th millennium BC). The second half of the course will look at several additional pre-modern world systems, chosen to fit with the interests of students taking the course. (Nicholas, offered alternate years)

ANTH 354 Seminar: Food, Meaning, Voice Everyone eats and the meanings attached to food are bountiful. Anthropologist Jack Goody notes that cuisine like music is not hampered by language and is able to easily cross cultural barriers. So food communicates within language and can also communicate like language. Food speaks. But what does food have to say? This course explores anthropological approaches to the study of food and cuisine. In our readings and writings, we will examine the way food is produced, prepared, exchanged and given meaning in cultures around the world. Food plays an important part in identity construction, religion, and socialization, and we will explore the communicative significance of foodways in past and present societies as expressed through symbols, rituals, everyday habits, and taboos. Course readings will investigate the way that cultural ideas about gender, ethnicity, national identity, class, and social value are communicated through activities such as cooking, consuming special diets, feasting, and fasting. Prerequisite: Students must have declared a major or minor in anthropology, or have permission of the instructor. (Annear, Maiale, offered alternate years)

ANTH 416 Visual Anthropology Culture is manifested in visual symbols embedded in gestures, ceremonies, ritual performances, and artifacts. In this course students will explore the history and development of anthropology's relationship to visual practices, focusing on, but not limited to, photography and film, both as a mode for representing culture and as a site of cultural practice. Our central goal will be to move away from concepts of objectivity or subjectivity toward the use of deeply situated spaces to investigate the making of reality. Critical theory, methods, and ethical concerns are all part of the current refashioning of visual anthropology and as such will be critical components of the class. Prerequisite: Students must have declared an anthropology major or minor, sociology major, or anthropology-sociology major, or have permission of instructor. (Maiale, offered annually)

ANTH 450 Independent Study Permission of the Instructor

ANTH 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study Permission of the Instructor

ANTH 465 Senior Seminar A seminar for senior majors to learn advanced forms of intensive writing, critical reading, oral presentation, and media application for conveying and analyzing anthropological knowledge. Students will conduct original research culminating in a substantial portfolio of work. The topic will vary with the research specialization of the faculty member teaching the seminar each year.  Prerequisite:  Students must be senior anthropology majors or senior anthropology-sociology majors, or have permission of the instructor. (Staff, offered annually)

ANTH 495 Honors Permission of the Instructor

ANTH 499 Internship in Anthropology A minimum of 150 hours of work or practice under the supervision of an anthropology faculty adviser. Students are expected to keep a reflective journal and to produce a paper that relates their experience to more general issues in anthropology. The length and scope of the paper shall be determined in consultation with the internship faculty adviser. Internship adviser permission is required to take this course, and prior departmental approval is required for any students who wish to repeat ANTH 499. Permission of the instructor.

Note:The following regularly offered courses outside anthropology will count toward the major:
BIDS 288 White Mythologies
EDUC 331 Rethinking Families

SOC 100 Introduction to Sociology An introduction to the fundamental concepts of sociology, this course focuses on such central issues as the social nature of personality; the effects of social class, race, and gender on social life; the interactional basis of society; and the place of beliefs and values in social structure and social action. A fundamental concern is to analyze the reciprocal nature of social existence to understand how society influences us and how we, in turn, construct it. Typically, the course applies the sociological perspective to an analysis of American society and other social systems. (Freeman, Harris, Kosta, Monson, Perkins, Sutton, offered every semester) Note: All upper level sociology courses require SOC 100 as a prerequisite.

SOC 206 Kids and Contention This class tackles the contentious history of childhood and youth in the U.S. context from a sociological perspective. We'll explore the history of childhood and youth, paying close attention to the ways in which young people are able to impact their social environment. Childhood is a social category that has historically been constructed by policies that fulfill the needs of adults. This course will provide us with a context to understand and interpret those policies and also investigate how children respond. We'll also examine how policy and other institutions inform particular norms, values, and stereotypes of young people, sometimes regardless of data or input from the young people themselves. Throughout the semester, we'll evaluate the role(s) of children in the various institutions, including schools, families, courts, neighborhoods, peer groups, and as consumers.  Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Freeman, offered annually)

SOC 211 Research Methods This course is an introduction to the basic issues and fundamental trends of social research. The logic of inquiry, research design, sampling, validity, reliability of indicators in social data, and logistical and ethical problems in the collection and analysis of data form the central problems for consideration. Techniques of data collection, such as, participant observation, content analysis, experimental design, unobtrusive measures, and survey research are discussed. The course is intended to prepare students for original research efforts and also to help them become more sophisticated consumers of the literature of the social sciences today. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Monson, Sutton, offered every semester)

SOC 212 Data Analysis This course provides an introduction to the organization and analysis of data in the process of social research. Presentation of data in tabular and graphic forms, the use of elementary descriptive and inferential statistics, and the use of bivariate and multivariate analytic procedures in the analysis of data are examined. This course includes a laboratory experience in the use of computing software to display data and test hypotheses. The course is ultimately intended to prepare students for original research efforts and to help them become more sophisticated consumers of the literature of the social sciences today. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Perkins, Freeman, offered annually)

SOC 220 Social Psychology In this seminar course, major theoretical perspectives and classic empirical studies in social psychology are introduced. The emphasis is on exposure to a variety of viewpoints in the literature. Theoretical orientations, such as learning theory, exchange theory, role theory, symbolic interaction, attribution theory, and cognitive balance models are surveyed during the term. Furthermore, studies in substantive areas, such as social norms and behavioral conformity, attitude change, interpersonal attraction, group dynamics, conflict and cooperation, and leadership are examined in light of these major perspectives. The course gives attention to the congruencies and disparities among psychological and sociological perspectives within the interdisciplinary field of social psychology. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Perkins, offered alternate years)

SOC 224 Social Deviance This course explores the social etiology of deviant behavior, the functions of deviance, and societal reactions to deviance. An interdisciplinary approach is taken to the internalization of norms, guilt, shame, punishment, and conformity as they relate to deviance. Various theoretical approaches are examined. Social deviance is considered as a regular aspect of societies, and this course is directed toward a normative theory of culture, addressed to the problems of order, conflict, and change. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Harris, Sutton, offered annually)

SOC 225 Working Families What is a "working family?" What work is done by families? When do families work well, and who or what makes these judgments? The family is analyzed as a social institution embedded in particular historical contexts, one which reflects broad economic change, cultural shifts, and political movements. Particular attention is paid to how various axes of social inequality (gender, class, race, and sexuality) shape the experience of family life at the individual level, and the evaluation of various family forms at the societal level. The questions we consider include: How are families affected by the institution of paid work, and how do workplaces respond (or not) to shifting family configurations? Are two-parent, single-parent, or extended families more common historically and cross-culturally? What social forces contribute to divorce rates? What are the causes and consequences of male-breadwinner and dual-earner families? How have cultural norms concerning motherhood and fatherhood changed over time? Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Monson, offered annually)

SOC 226 Sex and Gender What is the connection between biological sex and our identities as men and women? How is the variation over time and across cultures in gendered behavior explained? What are the sources and consequences of differences between women and men? How are these differences linked to inequalities of race and class as well as gender? What social forces will alter gender relations in the future? This course provides an introduction to sociological perspectives on gender relations as a social structure. Several theoretical frameworks for understanding the sources and persistence of gender differences and inequality are considered. Students examine a range of social institutions and ideological constructs shaping the social structure of gender, such as the state, family, employment, sexuality, and reproduction. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Monson, offered alternate years)

SOC 238 Immigrant America Ethnicity and race are constantly evolving social constructions, yet they remain among the most persistent forms of structured social inequality. Focusing on the United States, but with reference to other multi-ethnic societies, this course will consider the immigration histories to examine why and how the salience of ethnic identity increases and decreases at particular historical moments, how the categories of race and ethnicity inform each other, and how they are inexorably related to the continuous remaking of the American mainstream. This course will pay particular attention to the immigration patterns of the turn-of the-twentieth-century (Ellis Island) groups, and the Chicago-school tradition of urban ethnographies that documented the lives of those groups during the 20th and 21st centuries. (Kosta, offered alternate years)

SOC 242 Sociology of Business and Management This course provides an "applied" sociological analysis of the major trends shaping business in the United States and worldwide. Students explore the nature of business organization and management, at the micro level in its institutional forms and the business and management environment, at the macro level as it operates within economic and cultural systems, and within global contexts. The issues of demographic effects, ethical concerns, technological innovation, the role of producers and consumers, and the changing role of government are considered. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Harris, offered alternate years)

SOC 244 Religion in American Society This course focuses upon religion in American society from the post World War II era to the present, using sociological theory and empirical research to form the basic analytical perspective. A survey of the major religious traditions is provided along with an introduction to contemporary cults, sects, and new religious movements. Topics such as civil religion, processes of secularization and revival, social and demographic influences on belief and practice, organizational structures, church and state relations, and political activism of religious groups are examined. Discussion concerning the theological, ethical, and political implications of sociological claims about religion is also encouraged. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Perkins, offered alternate years)

SOC 253 Global Cities Everywhere, in numbers unheard of before, people are flocking to the world's cities, in many cases, regardless of the fact that when they arrive there, they find living conditions awful or even worse. Why? What do people want from cities? This course seeks to answer these questions by exploring the overarching concept of "the global city" developed in the aftermath of the restructuring of the world economy since the mid-1970s. It will examine the historical emergence of global cities (née "world cities"), and critically assess this conceptualization as a paradigm, theory, and research agenda within urban studies. We start with an overview of urbanization processes in the U.S. from the 19th century onwards, introduce the central body of theoretical literature on global cities, and continue exploring thematic topics such as new forms of inequality, labor relationships, neighborhood dynamics, and forms of fragmentation and segregation, through a comparative focus of urban processes around the world. A central feature of this course is the exploration of 21st century urbanism in the non-Western world. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Kosta, offered alternate years)

SOC 255 Social Problems in Ireland The focus of this course is the examination of fundamental social problems confronting contemporary Western societies. How social problems have emerged or have been perpetuated in recent years, and how social problems are defined and perceived by particular social groups, are important issues for this course, as is the consideration of various types of attempts to address these problems. In particular, the course poses the following questions: In what ways does a focused look at Ireland reveal particularly distinctive problems or essentially mirror larger patterns of problems facing most modern Western nations? And to what extent do the social problems reflect distinct or overlapping issues confronting the peace and stability of local communities and the nation of Ireland as a whole? What are the sources or causes of a social problem and what are the local and national programs and policies that emerge in attempts to address them, and how effective are these interventions? (Perkins, offered Fall 2017)

SOC 258 Social Problems The focus of this course is the examination of fundamental social problems confronting contemporary American society. How social problems have emerged or have been perpetuated in recent years, and how social problems are defined and perceived by particular social groups are important issues for this course, as is the analysis of possible solutions to these problems. Poverty, racism, care of the aged, alcohol and substance abuse, the AIDS epidemic, pornography, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, family violence, abortion, children's rights, church and state conflicts, gun control, and capital punishment are some examples of topics for this course. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Staff, offered occasionally)

SOC 263 Juvenile Delinquency This course outlines the history of juvenile delinquency in the United States and highlights current trends and patterns of delinquent behavior. A number of explanations have been proposed for why young people engage in deviance and crime, and a range of responses have been developed to identify, rehabilitate, and at times punish juveniles who do not behave appropriately. This course provides an in-depth look into these explanations and responses, and it critically examines how social power, inequalities, gender, poverty, and other sociological themes are intertwined with juvenile offending and the social control of juvenile delinquents. A sample of substantive topics focused on in this course includes gangs, juvenile sex offenders, substance abuse, violence, and the juvenile justice system. (Sutton, offered annually)

SOC 300 Classical Sociological Theory The founders of sociology were deeply concerned about problems that continue to be of vital importance for contemporary sociological inquiry. Questions such as the nature of society and its relationship to individuals, the relation between sociological theory and social practice, whether sociology is a science and, if not, what it is, and so on, are all absolutely central to the sociological enterprise, and yet often become lost. This course returns to the classics in an effort to uncover the questions sociologists need constantly to ask themselves if they wish to reflect cogently upon their role in the contemporary world. Required of all sociology majors. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Harris, Kosta, offered annually)

SOC 357 Race and Education This course provides an in-depth analysis of the ways in which education in the United States, at times challenges and at times reproduces racial hierarchy. Using a combination of macro and micro level sociological theories (e.g., structural functionalism, social reproduction, intersectionality, interactional), we'll explore the socialization, organization, and assessment practices of schooling in the United States with a lens toward racial inequality. Education is often touted as the key to equality, particularly in the U.S. context. This course explores how education, despite this idealized view, has reproduced, and in some cases, exacerbated existing social inequalities. Using both micro and macro sociological frameworks, we will engage several key works that establish how schools create a social order that is not egalitarian and, how, in fact, schools were never intended to promote equality across demographic groups. We will also explore reforms and alternatives to promote racial equality through schooling. Discussions of primary texts will not only engage sociological theory but will also analyze methodological choice and relevance for questions of educational equality. (Freeman, offered alternate years)

SOC 362 Criminology This course provides a comprehensive overview of criminological theory and its applications. The major theories of crime and criminal behavior are presented, crime trends and patterns are investigated, and the main sources of crime data are critically assessed. Substantive crime topics such as fear of crime, victimization, drug use, murder, burglary, white-collar deviance, and sexual assault are also examined. Although interdisciplinary approaches to understanding crime will be explored given that the field of criminology in inherently interdisciplinary, this course is ultimately grounded in broader sociological principles and concepts, including but not limited to race, gender, class, power, social inequality, socialization, and social interaction. Discussions of course topics will be theoretical and empirical, with special attention given to the roles that data and research play in the evaluation of theory and the development of evidence based practices for responding to crime. (Sutton, offered alternate years)

SOC 370 Religion, Politics, and Lifestyle Sociological theory has long debated the role of religious belief and practice in the maintenance and transformation of society. Does what is sacred essentially maintain the social patterns and power structure of society or do various forms of belief and spirituality make a crucial contribution to movements producing social change? Has religion become a less important element of society in the modern world through growing secularization or is it continually transformed with renewed social influence in society? These questions about the effects and prevalence of sacred beliefs and institutions are examined through the views of both classic and contemporary sociologists.  This advanced seminar course examines variation in the social significance of religion by looking at how alternative movements as well as dominant beliefs and practices in modern Western societies have remained influential, faded to marginality, or reemerged in political and social life. Three debates will be highlighted: the problem of pluralism spawning religious conflict, the question of the inevitability of secularization, and the possibility of imposing a separation between religion and the modern political state. (Perkins, offered alternate years)

SOC 375 Social Policy This course focuses on U.S. income support policies designed to address poverty due to old age, unemployment, and single parenthood, using case studies of other Western welfare states for comparative purposes. The course traces the historical development and restructuring of the U.S. welfare state, from the "poor laws" in the colonial era, through the New Deal of the 1930s, the War on Poverty in the 1960s and 1970s, and the "end of welfare" at the turn of the 21st century. Central questions considered include how families, labor markets, and states intersect, and whether welfare states' policies ameliorate or reinforce inequalities of gender, race, and class. Prerequisite: SOC 100. (Monson, offered alternate years)

SOC 401 Pro Present (1/2 credit) This class equips students with a toolkit to finalize independent research and present it professionally at an academic conference. Seniors who are pursuing honors projects, advanced independent studies, or furthering research projects initiated in Research Methods are invited to apply to the instructor for admission. Students will learn how to critique sociological work, strengthen their own arguments, build a professional verbal and visual presentation, field questions from those outside of their area of expertise, and present their work confidently and coherently. This course culminates in a required professional poster presentation at the Eastern Sociological Society annual meeting (or a comparable professional sociological conference) in spring of the same year. Thus, while the course is 1/2 credit, all contact hours occur during the first seven weeks of the semester. (Staff, offered occasionally)

SOC 450 Independent Study Permission of the instructor required. (Offered annually)

SOC 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study Permission of the instructor required. (Offered annually)

SOC 465 Senior Seminar: Research Practicum Prerequisite: Students must have passed SOC 211 and either SOC 212 or 300. (Staff, offered annually)

SOC 495 Honors Permission of the instructor required. (Offered annually)

SOC 499 Internship in Sociology A minimum of 150 hours of work or practice under the supervision of a sociology faculty adviser. Students are expected to keep a reflective journal and to produce a paper that relates their experience to more general issues in sociology. The length and scope of the paper shall be determined in consultation with the internship faculty adviser. Internship adviser permission is required to take this course, and prior departmental approval is required for any students who wish to repeat SOC 499. Permission of instructor.

Sociology Courses Taught Occasionally
SOC 201 Sociology of International Development
SOC 222 Social Change and the Individual
SOC 228 Social Conflict
SOC 230 The Sociology of Everyday Life
SOC 231 Sociology of Art and Culture
SOC 233 Women and Political Mobilization in the Third World
SOC 240 Gender and Development
SOC 241 Sociology of Sport
SOC 243 Religion, State, and Society in Modern Britain
SOC 248 Medical Sociology
SOC 250 Population Crisis in the Third World
SOC 256 Power and Powerlessness
SOC 257 Political Sociology
SOC 259 Social Movements
SOC 260 The Sociology of Human Nature
SOC 298 Sociology of Mass Communications
SOC 312 Advanced Quantitative Methods
SOC 325 Moral Sociology and the Good Society
SOC 330 Symbolic Interaction
SOC 331 Sociology of Art and Culture
SOC 340 Feminist Social Theory
SOC 350 Sociology of Knowledge
SOC 380 Totalitarian Society

Note: A number of regularly offered bidisciplinary courses and interdisciplinary program courses carry credit for the Sociology major. Examples include BIDS 214The Politics of Reproduction, BIDS 229 Two Cities: New York and Toronto, BIDS 245 Men and Masculinity, BIDS 288 White Mythologies, and BIDS 295 Alcohol Use and Abuse. Students are encouraged to see the Bidisciplinary Program offerings and to check with department faculty about such offerings.


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