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COURSE CATALOGUE : Psychological Science

Psychological Science provides students with a broad introduction to the study of behavior and its underlying processes with an emphasis on psychology as an experimental science. The Department of Psychological Science offers a major and a minor. To count toward the major or minor, courses must be passed with a grade of C- or better. In order for courses to count toward the psychological science major or minor, the following prerequisites must be met: 200-level courses require PSY 100 as a prerequisite; 300-level special topics seminars require PSY 100 and at least one 200-level course, which might be specified; 300-level research courses require PSY 100, PSY 210, and at least one other 200-level course, which might be specified. Refer to individual course descriptions for specific 200-level prerequisites.

The department recommends strongly for students planning to major or minor in psychological science to take PSY 100 as soon as possible and then PSY 210. Furthermore, the department recommends strongly that PSY 210 be either completed (with a grade of C- or higher), or in progress (with student in good standing), before students declare the psychological science major (before the end of their sophomore year), or before they declare their psychological science minor (junior year). In addition, after taking PSY 100, students interested in majoring or minoring in psychological science should take only one 200-level elective course before completing PSY 210. Students who earn below a C- in more than one psychological science course may be restricted from retaking psychological science courses or enrolling in courses from the same category (e.g., 200-level, 300-research courses, etc.). In such cases, students are urged to consult with their psychological science advisors or the Department Chair to consider available options and/or alternate plans. These recommendations are intended to support student success in choosing and completing psychological science as a major/minor. All students are encouraged to work closely with their advisor to meet the department’s recommendations.

Advanced Placement: Students who score a 4 or 5 on the AP Psychology Exam may enroll in courses for which PSY 100 is a prerequisite without having taken PSY 100. However, psychological science majors and minors who bypass PSY 100 must complete the same number of departmental courses as any other psychological science major or minor (see below). To meet this requirement, they must complete one additional psychological science course at the 200-level or higher in place of PSY 100. Similarly, psychological science majors or minors who take BIOL 212 (Biostatistics) as a substitute for PSY 210 must complete one additional psychological science course at the 200-level or higher in place of PSY 210. Statistics courses taken in other departments at HWS may be substituted for PSY 210 with approval from the Psychological Science Department Chair.

Students are eligible to receive academic credit toward the psychological science major for a maximum of two courses taken at institutions elsewhere. This two-course limit includes courses taken abroad that are not taught by HWS Psychological Science faculty. Students pursuing the psychological science minor may transfer a maximum of one course toward the psychological science minor, including courses taken abroad that are not taught by HWS Psychological Science faculty. A grade of C- or higher must be earned for all transfer courses. Students planning to transfer courses from another institution while they are students of Hobart and William Smith Colleges must consult with and secure approval from the Psychological Science Department chair prior to enrolling in a course by utilizing the Course Approval for Transfer Credit form, which can be obtained from the Hobart or William Smith Dean’s Office. Online courses are not eligible for transfer credit. For those transfer students who had previously matriculated at another institution prior to their attendance at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, the number of transfer courses accepted toward the major or minor is negotiable. In such cases, the Psychological Science Department Chair determines which courses will count toward the major or minor.

Psychological Science majors fulfill the capstone requirement by successfully completing two 300-level Psychological Science capstone research courses. Majors must take one capstone research course from Group A (i.e., cognition/biological/neuroscience) and one capstone research course from Group B (i.e., cultural/societal/individual differences). The course numbers/titles and prerequisites for our capstone research courses are included below. Across these courses, students read primary literature (both classic and contemporary), and discuss key theoretical and methodological issues relevant to a particular subdiscipline of psychological science. Students gain hands-on experience with the scientific method through a variety of research activities, and/or by designing and conducting their own experiments and/or studies. Each capstone research course requires a major writing component and students are required to give a final oral and/or written presentation on the work that they have completed during the semester.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR (B.A.)
11 courses
PSY 100 and PSY 210; one course from capstone research group A; one course from capstone research group B; two 300-level special topics seminars; four additional psychological science courses, only one of which may be at the 400-level, one of which must be the prerequisite for a 300-level group A research course, and one of which must be the prerequisite for the 300-level group B research course; and one course from outside of the department that provides another perspective on behavior. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted toward the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR (B.S.)
16 courses
All of the requirements for the B.A. in psychological science, plus five additional courses in the natural sciences, approved by the advisor, assuming the course that provides a perspective on behavior from a discipline other than psychological science is in the natural sciences. Otherwise, six additional natural science courses are needed. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted toward the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR
6 courses
PSY 100 and PSY 210; one 300-level capstone research course (either group); and three additional elective psychological science courses, only one of which may be at the 400-level. One of the electives must be a prerequisite for either a group A or B capstone research course. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted toward the minor.

200-LEVEL ELECTIVE COURSES
PSY 203 Introduction to Child Psychology
PSY 205 Adolescent Psychology
PSY 220 Introduction to Personality Psychology
PSY 221 Introduction to Psychopathology
PSY 227 Introduction to Social Psychology
PSY 235 Cognitive Neuroscience
PSY 230 Biopsychology
PSY 231 Cognitive Psychology
PSY 245 Introduction to Cultural Psychology
PSY 275 Human Sexuality
PSY 299 Sensation and Perception

300-LEVEL CAPSTONE RESEARCH COURSE GROUPS
Group A
PSY 310 Research in Sensation and Perception
PSY 311 Research in Behavioral Neuroscience
PSY 331 Research in Cognition

Group B
PSY 321 Research in Developmental Psychology
PSY 322 Research in Personality Psychology
PSY 327 Research in Social Psychology
PSY 347 Research in Cultural Psychology
PSY 350 Research in Clinical Psychology

300-LEVEL SPECIAL TOPICS SEMINARS
PSY 309 Topics in Sensation & Perception
PSY 344 Topics in Personality Psychology
PSY 346 Topics in Cultural Psychology
PSY 352 Topics in Clinical Psychology
PSY 359 Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience
PSY 370 Topics in Developmental Psychology
PSY 373 Topics in Social Psychology
PSY 375 Topics in Cognitive Psychology

OTHER COURSES
PSY 045 ½ Credit Teacher Assistant
PSY 050 Teacher Assistant
PSY 450 Independent Study
PSY 456 ½ Credit Independent Study
PSY 495 Honors
PSY 499 Psychology Internship

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
PSY 100 Introduction to Psychology This course offers a comprehensive survey of the methodology and content of present day psychology. Emphasis is placed on the development of a critical evaluative approach to theories and empirical data. (Fall and spring, offered annually)

PSY 203 Introduction Child Psychology This course provides an overview of the major theories that guide the study of child development, as well as the normative physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that take place from infancy through late childhood.. This course also considers contextual influences (e.g., the family, peers, schools,culture, the media) on development and several key themes (e.g., how children shape their own development, individual differences, the use of research findings to promote children's well-being). Students can take either PSY 203 or PSY 205 (not both), and exceptions can be considered on a case-by-case basis. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Kingery or staff, offered at least alternating years)

PSY 205 Adolescent Psychology This course examines the developmental processes and social forces that contribute to adolescence as a distinct part of the life span. Emphasis is placed on major theories, research findings, and the biological, cognitive, and social changes that occur during adolescence. This course also focuses on contextual influences (i.e., the family, peers, schools, neighborhoods, the media) on development and issues such as intimacy, identity, sexuality, autonomy, and psychological problems (e.g., eating disorders, depression, antisocial behavior).  Students can take either Psy 203 or Psy 205 (not both), and exceptions can be considered on a case by case basis.  Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Kingery, Staff, offered at least alternating years)

PSY 210 Statistics & Design A survey of basic procedures for the analysis of psychological data, topics in this course include basic univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics; hypothesis testing; and a variety of analyses to use with single group, between group, within group, and factorial designs. A study of experimental methods is also conducted within the Research component of this course by designing, running, analyzing, interpreting and presenting one or more student research projects. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Fall and spring, offered annually)

PSY 220 Introduction to Personality Major theoretical approaches and contemporary research are evaluated to assess the current state of knowledge about intrapsychic, dispositional, biological, cognitive, and sociocultural domains of personality functioning. The personal, historical, and cultural contexts of theory development are emphasized. Application of personality concepts to individual lives is encouraged to enhance understanding of self and others. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Branch, offered annually)

PSY 221 Introduction to Psychopathology This course primarily focuses on understanding the diagnosis, eitiology, and evidence-based treatment of adult psychological disorders. Emphasis is placed on understanding psychological disorders through theoretical models, empirical evidence, and through the reading of memoirs of individuals with a variety of disorders. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Bodenlos, offered annually)

PSY 222 Developmental Psychopathology This course focuses on developmental psychopathology, an approach that emphasizes examining the risk factors that make it more likely that individuals will develop psychological disorders, as well as the protective factors that contribute to positive adjustment. Key concepts in developmental psychopathology are discussed, including risk, resilience, and developmental pathways. Contexts that influence both adaptive and maladaptive development (e.g., families, neighborhoods, peer interactions) are also discussed. Specific psychological disorders (e.g., autism, oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, anxiety, depression) that emerge from infancy through adolescence are covered, with an emphasis on the risk/protective factors, course, diagnostic criteria, and evidence-based treatment strategies for each disorder. Prerequisite: PSY 100.  (Staff, offered occasionally)

PSY 227 Introduction to Social Psychology This course introduces students to theory and research in social psychology, the study of the nature and causes of individual and group behavior in social contexts. Emphases are placed on understanding social psychological theories through studying classic and current research and on applying social psychological theories to better understand phenomena such as social perception, attitude change, prejudice and discrimination, attraction, interpersonal relationships, conformity, aggression, and inter-group relations. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Fisher, offered annually)

PSY 230 Biopsychology This course examines how the human nervous system is related to behavior. Lectures are designed to concentrate on aspects of biopsychology that are interesting and important to a broad audience. The intent is to make connections among several areas of specialization within psychology (e.g., developmental; cognitive; and clinical) and between other disciplines (e.g., philosophy; biology; chemistry). A format is employed that presents basic content to support the presentation of contemporary topics. Information is presented assuming knowledge from an introductory level Psychology course. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Greenspon, offered annually)

PSY 231 Cognitive Psychology This course is designed to provide a general understanding of the principles of cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology is the scientific approach to understanding the human mind and its relationship to behavior. The course introduces students to classic and contemporary empirical research in both theoretical and practical aspects of a variety of cognitive issues. Topics included are pattern recognition, attention, mental representation, memory, language, problem solving and decision making. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Rizzella or staff, offered annually)

PSY 235 Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of neural structures and their relationship to behavioral functions.  Cognitive neuroscientists attempt to bridge cognitive theory with theories of neural function and organization.  In this course, we will seek to identify neural mechanisms that give rise to cognitive processes such as attention, emotion, language and memory.  We will cover basic neuroanatomy and investigative methods used to make inferences on the relationship between brain function and cognitive processing.  Topics include:  Cognitive Control, Visual Recognition, Language Acquisition, Language Deficits, Memory, Emotions, Memory Disorders and Attentional Awareness.  Prerequisite: PSY 100.  (Offered occasionally)

PSY 245 Introduction to Cultural Psychology Cultural psychology is the systematic study of the influence of sociocultural factors on human behavior. This course examines theory and research that pertain to the role of culture and context in human experience and functioning. The relationship among culture, biology, evolution, and behavior is emphasized. Course readings focus on the diversity of human experience in domains such as cognition and intelligence, emotion and motivation, socialization and development, social perception and interaction, and mental health and disorders. Prerequisite: PSY 100 or LTAM 210. (Ashdown, offered annually)

PSY 275 Human Sexuality The primary aim of this course is to explore contemporary issues of the human sexualities. Emphasis is given to psychosocial and cross-cultural research of the 20th century and the sequel of institutional forces designed to pathologize sexual expression. Topics include variations of sexual behavior, sexual response, sexual deviance, and sexual dysfunction and treatment. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Offered annually)

PSY 299 Sensation and Perception Perception of the world through the senses is one of the most sophisticated yet least appreciated accomplishments of the human brain. This course explores how people experience and understand the world through the senses, using frequent classroom demonstrations of the perceptual phenomena under discussion. The course introduces the major facts and theories of sensory function and examines the psychological processes involved in interpreting sensory input, as well as the evolutionary foundations of human perception. The primary emphasis is on vision, though other senses are considered as well. Prerequisite: PSY 100. (Graham, offered annually)

PSY 307 History and Systems This course examines the history of psychology and its antecedents, both classical and modern. Surveyed in detail are the processes by which the diverse roots of modern psychology fostered the development of principal areas of psychological inquiry, including those that guide much of the research and practice of psychology today. This course places into historical perspective major concepts, philosophical assumptions and theories of psychology. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and two PSY courses other than PSY 210. (Offered occasionally)

PSY 309 Topics Sensation & Perception This course provides an in-depth exploration of a specific topic in sensory perception using advanced readings from the primary literature. Topics covered vary from semester to semester; recent instantiations have examined relations between human artwork and the human visual system. Other topics might include study of a particular sensory system (e.g., hearing or touch), study of a particular sensory ability (e.g., color vision), or study of a particular issue in perception (e.g., perceptual development). Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 299 or permission of the instructor. (Graham, offered annually)

PSY 310 Research in Sensation & Perception In this introduction to conducting research on the senses, students explore contemporary issues in sensation and perception through lecture, classroom discussion and hands-on research experience. Students will conduct experiments that recreate or simulate classic studies in the history of sensory perception, and they will develop their own experiments and demonstrations concerning major perceptual phenomena. Areas to be addressed include neural signaling, ocular anatomy and physiology, visual system representations, binocular vision, face perception, and other topics. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210, and either PSY 299 or PSY 230. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Graham, offered annually)

PSY 311 Research in Behavioral Neuroscience This course exposes students to basic concepts of psychological research in the area of neuroscience. A systems approach is utilized that assumes organized activity of different parts of the nervous system is important for determining behavior.  Currently, the focus of research in this course involves investigating how music is organized in the nervous system and how this impacts other behaviors such as language and other cognitive abilities. Emphasis is placed on theoretical and methodological issues. Specifically, the history of questions to which theory and method have been applied, the logic implicit to answer certain kinds of questions, and the strengths and limitations of specific answers for providing insights into the nature of the brain-behavior relationship are examined. The development of conceptual and theoretical skills is derived from running an original research study. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210 and PSY 230, 231, 235 or PSY 299, or permission of instructor. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Greenspon, offered annually)

PSY 321 Research in Developmental Psychology This course provides an overview of the research designs and methods used by developmental psychologists. Attention is given to ethical issues involved in human research, critical evaluation of published developmental research, and interpretation of research findings. Students gain direct experience with research methods such as questionnaires, parent and/or child interviews, and behavioral observation. Throughout the semester, students design and conduct an original research study or develop their own research proposal. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210, and PSY 203 or PSY 205. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Kingery, offered annually)

PSY 322 Research in Personality This course provides an introduction to a variety of methods employed in the service of three complementary objectives of personality research: 1) holistic understanding of the unique organization of processes within individuals; 2) explanation of individual differences and similarities; and 3) discovery of universal principles that characterize human personality functioning. Practical, ethical, and theoretical considerations for assessing and studying personality characteristics and processes are emphasized, as are interpretation and critical analysis of published research. Over course of the semester students will apply course content by designing, carrying out, and reporting results of an original research project. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210 and PSY 220. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Branch, offered annually)

PSY 327 Research in Social Psychology This course is designed to acquaint students with correlational and experimental research approaches in social psychology. Through examination of classic and contemporary studies and innovative as well as traditional methods in the discipline, the practical and ethical challenges of designing, conducting, interpreting and communicating about social psychological research are explored. Students design and carry out original research. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210 and PSY 227 or WMST 223. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Fisher, offered annually

PSY 331 Research in Cognition An in-depth examination of experimental methodology in the field of cognitive psychology is covered in this course. The use of reaction time and accuracy measures is emphasized. Students conduct a study in a cognitive area of their choice and disseminate their findings in an appropriate professional format. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210 and PSY 231. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Rizzella, offered annually

PSY 344 Topics in Personality This course explores classic and current theory and research pertaining to fundamental and contemporary issues in personality psychology. The course follows a seminar format that emphasizes critical analysis and articulation of ideas, both in discussion and in writing. Topics are announced in advance. Possible topics include personality and culture; personality development; self and identity; personality and interpersonal relationships, ethnic identity, personality and emotion. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 220, or permission of instructor. (Branch, offered annually)

PSY 346 Topics in Cultural Psychology This course provides an in-depth examination of a contemporary topic in cultural psychology. Topics may include: cultural influences on human development; intercultural communication; death, dying, and grieving; sexualities across cultures; social perception across cultures; cultural influences such as religion, education, or politics; diversity and intercultural training; prejudice and discrimination; or identity. Course activities draw upon extensive readings in the primary and secondary literature of the selected topic. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 245. (Ashdown, offered annually)

PSY 347 Research in Cultural Psychology This course concentrates on the study of human behavior and experience as they are influenced by cultural factors. Special attention is devoted to the examination of culture via science-based research methodologies. The focus of the class is exploring how cultural beliefs and values provide meaning and context for human behavior. Students use knowledge gained in this course to design and carry out a research project. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210, and PSY 245. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Ashdown, offered annually

PSY 350 Research in Clinical Psychology This course provides an introduction to the scientist-practitioner model of clinical psychology. This course will focus on a review of research designs and methods commonly used to examine psychopathology, etiology, and treatment of psychological disorders. Students will also examine a variety of theoretical models of psychotherapy and research regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Prerequisites: PSY 100, PSY 210 and PSY 221. This course is part of the capstone requirement for Psychology majors. (Bodenlos, offered annually)

PSY 352 Topics: Clinical Psychology The scope of this course varies from covering general clinical issues to a more in-depth analysis of D29one topic area. The topic is announced in advance and may include health psychology, aging and mental health, eating and obesity, positive psychology, forensic psychology, community psychology, child psychopathology or child psychotherapy. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 221. (Bodenlos, offered occasionally)

PSY 359 Topics Behavioral Neuroscience This course surveys literature and theory representative of an important contemporary conceptual issue in behavioral neuroscience. Each year topics for the course are announced in advance. The course is designed to include a nonspecialized group of students having a varied distribution of psychology courses and interested in developing conceptual relationships among different subdivisions within psychology. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and at least one other psychology course. (Greenspon, offered occasionally)

PSY 370 Topics in Developmental Psychology This course surveys the theoretical and empirical literature associated with a contemporary issue in the field of developmental psychology. Topics are announced in advance. Possible topics include: developmental psychopathology, friendship, mindfulness, and developmental transitions. Across topics, emphasis is placed on risk factors, the protective factors that contribute to positive adjustment, and the development of resilience. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 203 or PSY 205. (Kingery, offered occasionally)

PSY 373 Topics in Social Psychology This seminar surveys the empirical and theoretical literature associated with a significant contemporary issue in social psychology. Topics are announced in advance. Possible topics include applied psychology, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, political psychology, interpersonal relationships, persuasion and social influence, altruism and prosocial behavior. Prerequisites: PSY 100 and PSY 227 or WMST 223. (Fisher, offered annually)

PSY 375 Topics in Cognitive Psychology This seminar involves an in-depth exploration of a variety of related topics in cognition. Topics covered in the recent past include language, psycholinguistics, memory representation, autobiographical memory, memory reliability and cognitive aging. Students are expected to play an active role in the class by making substantive contributions to class discussion. Prerequisites: PSY 231. (Rizzella, offered occasionally)

PSY 450 Independent Study

PSY 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study

PSY 495 Honors

Preparing Students to Lead Lives of Consequence.