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Historians seek to understand what humanity is by investigating what humanity has done. The Department of History conceives the human community: in time, attempting not merely to chronicle events but to explain events in their various connections; in space, juxtaposing events and their explanations in one part of the world with events and explanations in other parts of the world; and in a system of analytic categories, exploiting every explanatory feature of the humanistic disciplines and of the social and natural sciences that offers insight into human thought and activity in the past.

The History Department offers a disciplinary major and minor. All history majors select an area of concentration by their junior year (see below). The area of concentration may be geographic (African and Middle Eastern, North American, Latin American, Asian, and European (including Russian); thematic (for example: industrialism, gender, revolutions); or chronological (medieval, early modern, modern). To count toward the major or minor, all courses must be passed with a grade of C or better.

disciplinary, 10 courses
At least two 100-level introductory courses (EUST 102 and ASN 101 may substitute for one or more introductory history courses); four 200-level or higher history courses in one area of concentration (geographic, thematic, or chronological); four additional history courses, only one of which may be at the 100-level. Of the 10 courses in the major, at least three courses must cover different geographical areas. At least two of the 10 courses for the major must be at the 300-level or above. At least one of the 300-level or higher courses must be a seminar/capstone course or history honors project. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.

disciplinary, 5 courses
At least one 100-level introductory course (EUST 102 and ASN 101 may substitute for one or more introductory history courses); at least one 300or 400-level history course; three additional history courses, not more than one of which may be at the 100-level. At least two of the courses must be in two different geographic areas. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the minor.

Introductory Courses
HIST 101 Foundations of European Society
EUST 102 European Studies II
HIST 103 Early Modern Europe
HIST 107/ASN 101 Trekking Through Asia
AFS 110 Introduction to African Experience
HIST 111 Topics in Introduction to American History
HIST 112 Soccer: Around the World with the Beautiful Game
HIST 120/ASN 120 Making of the Samurai
HIST 151 World Food Systems

African and Middle Eastern History
HIST 112 Soccer: Around the World with the Beautiful Game
HIST 283 South Africa in Transition
HIST 284 Africa: From Colonialism to Neocolonialist
HIST 353 Invention of Africa
HIST 354 Lives of Consequence

Asian History
HIST 107/ASN 101 Trekking through Asia
HIST 120/ASN 120 Making of the Samurai
HIST 202 Japan Since 1868
HIST 242 Riding with Genghis Khan
HIST 292 Japan Before 1868
HIST 298 Exploring Modern China
HIST 305 Seminar: Showa through the Silver Screen
HIST 320 Seminar: History and Memory in the Asia-Pacific War
HIST 324 Seminar: The Worlds of Civilized Barbarians
HIST 392 Seminar: Japanese History-Topics

European History
HIST 201 Tudor-Stuart Britain
HIST 209 History of Medieval Women
HIST 220 Early Medieval Europe
HIST 237 Europe Since the War
HIST 238 The World Wars in Global Perspective
HIST 250 Medieval Popular Culture
HIST 253 Renaissance and Reformation
HIST 256 Technology and Society in Europe
HIST 264 Modern European City
HIST 272 Nazi Germany
HIST 276 The Age of Dictators
HIST 286 Plants and Empire
HIST 297 Law in the Pre-Modern Mediterranean
HIST 301 Seminar: The Enlightenment
HIST 308 Seminar: The Historian's Craft
HIST 313 Seminar: Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution
HIST 318 Seminar: Making of the Individualist Self
HIST 325 Seminar: Medicine and Public Health in Modern Europe
HIST 334 Seminar: Pre-Modern Mediterranean
HIST 351 Seminar: Freud and the Problem of Authority
HIST 431 Seminar: History of Original Sin
HIST 473 Seminar: Britain in the Age of Industry and Empire

U.S. History
HIST 207 United States History in the Age of Revolutions, 1776-1848
HIST 208 Women in American History
HIST 212 Historical Research Methods
HIST 215 American Urban History
HIST 227 African American History I: The Early Era
HIST 228 African American History II: The Modern Era
HIST 229 Public History
HIST 233 History of American Thought to 1865
HIST 234 History of American Thought Since 1865
HIST 235 Civil War and Reconstruction
HIST 240 Immigration and Ethnicity in America
HIST 244 US Legal and Constitutional History: Origins to the Present
HIST 246 American Environmental History
HIST 304 Seminar: The Early American Republic: 1789-1840
HIST 306 Seminar: Civil War and Reconstruction: 1840-1877
HIST 310 Rise of Industrial America
HIST 311 20th Century America: 1917-1941
HIST 317 Seminar: Women's Rights Movements in the U.S.
HIST 345 Seminar: The Racial Construction of America
HIST 348 Black Women in the Struggle for Rights in America
HIST 352 Seminar: Wealth, Power and Prestige: The Upper Class in American History
HIST 395 Ocean, Law, and Empire: Research in Oceanic History
HIST 471 Seminar: Civil War in American Memory

Latin American History
HIST 205 Modern Mexican History
HIST 226 Colonial Latin America
HIST 231 Modern Latin America
HIST 327 Seminar: Human Rights: Cold War and US Intervention in Central America
HIST 330 Seminar: The Mexican Revolution
LTAM 210 Perspectives on Latin America

Advanced Courses
HIST 450 Independent Study
HIST 495 Honors
HIST 499 History Internship

HIST 304 Seminar: The Early American Republic: 1789-1840
HIST 306 Seminar: Civil War and Reconstruction: 1840-1877
HIST 308 Seminar: The Historian's Craft
HIST 313 Seminar: Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution
HIST 317 Seminar: Women's Rights Movements in the U.S.
HIST 318 Seminar: Making of the Individualist Self
HIST 320 Seminar: History and Memory in the Asia-Pacific War
HIST 324 Seminar: The Worlds of Civilized Barbarians
HIST 325 Seminar: Medicine and Public Health in Modern Europe
HIST 327 Seminar: Human Rights: Cold War and US Intervention in Central America
HIST 330 Seminar: The Mexican Revolution
HIST 334 Seminar: Pre-Modern Mediterranean
HIST 345 Seminar: The Racial Construction of America
HIST 351 Seminar: Freud and the Problem of Authority
HIST 352 Seminar: Wealth, Power and Prestige: The Upper Class in American History
HIST 392 Seminar: Japanese History-Topics
HIST 431 Seminar: History of Original Sin
HIST 471 Seminar: Civil War in American Memory
HIST 473 Seminar: Britain in the Age of Industry and Empire

HIST 101 Foundations of European Society With the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe's cultural heritage faced unprecedented opportunities as well as challenges. The "Dark Ages" were a time of recovery and synthesis, with Germanic and Pagan customs mixing with Roman and Christian culture to form a unique blend of religion, family life, politics, and economy. Through literature and art, this course discusses the origins of the Western ascetic spirit and the beginning of romantic love and the cult of chivalry. Through visual sources, it explores the construction and defense of castles and manors, and traces the embryonic development of agriculture and technology. (Whitten)

HIST 103Early Modern EuropeThis course explores a phase in Europe's history marked by religious conflict, intellectual crisis, social and cultural change, territorial expansion, economic and technological development, and political upheavals: the period from the mid-16th century to the fall of Napoleon. We will give special attention to the various forces and consequences of change and continuity; what makes this era "early modern"; what both seals it off in a state of otherness and recognizably ties it to the present; and what has led historians to conceptualize and characterize it as exceptionally revolutionary. (Kadane,Fall)

HIST 107/ASN 101Trekking through Asia(from the Asian Studies dept.; goals from the History dept.) Welcome to the "Asian Century." Asia has re-emerged as the center of the world, after a brief hiatus that started in the 18th century. With histories and religious traditions stretching back three millennia, today as we see cultures across Asia have transformed in ways to meet the demands of our rapidly changing world. China, Japan, and India are three of the world's top economies. Asia contains six of the world's ten largest countries, and is home to over half of the world's population and two of the world's major religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. For decades Asian countries have been leaders in global manufacturing, and Asian universities are now renowned centers for scientific and medical innovation. Fifty percent of the declared nuclear-weapon states are also in the region. Simply put, Asia matters a great deal! In this course, we trek through the Asian past and present, exploring this vast and vibrant region. Through writings and travelogues that documented the peoples and lands of places stretching from the Sea of Japan to Persia, and from Java to the Mediterranean Sea, we will learn about the cultural systems that helped shape Asian societies. We will consider how these traditions contributed to and were changed by historical interactions in Asia itself and in relationship to the rest of the world. Join us on the journey! (Yoshikawa)

HIST 111Topics in Introduction to American HistoryThese courses investigate different topics, but they all explore critical episodes or themes in American history to help you: 1) understand the complex nature of the historical record; 2) engage in historical inquiry, research, and analysis; 3) craft historical narrative and argument; and 4) practice historical thinking in order to better understand and engage with present-day society. Prerequisites: none. (Offered every semester)

Sample Topics:

  • Tides of History: US History in Oceanic Perspective "Oceans rise, empires fall," or so sings King George III in the popular modern musical, Hamilton. This short line suggests a strong link between the fate of empires and the history of exercising political and economic power on the one hand with the history of the ocean on the other. The goal of this class is to explore the ways in which human beings have interacted with their aquatic environments in United States history, broadly considered. Beginning with Native American peoples and their settlement of the continent, their use of the coasts and great rivers and lakes of the interior, and their early contacts with an Atlantic world of exploration, conquest, and exchange, this course goes on to explore European settlement, the Middle Passage, the importance of naval power to British and American empire, the Mississippi River as a conduit of the power of slavery and the expansion of United States territory, the ocean as a site of literary and cultural imagination and discovery, the formation of American identity as a maritime power, the whaling and fishing industries, and the legal and political battles over valuable and fragile coasts. The course will conclude with a consideration of the facts of climate change and a rising, acidifying ocean, and the impact not only on coastal populations in the United States but on the future of human civilization itself.(Crow)
  • The American WestThis class will look at the sweeping history and powerful image of a particular region, the American West, and explore its perpetually shifting boundaries from the pre-Columbian past to current public policy debates about violence, race and immigration, natural resources, and popular culture. Over the course of the class we will look at the history of ideas of the frontier, the myths of the West, Native Americans and the violence of American conquest, representations and realities of men and women in the West, contemporary debates about American citizenship and identity through the prism of Los Angeles, and environmental history and politics. What is the West? What is the frontier? Are there such things at all or are the very categories we are thinking with merely products of a pervading illusion at the very heart of our historical self-understanding? From "westward the course of the empire" to "the Dude abides," our assumption will need to be that in the West, the job of the historian gets messy, because like the boundaries of the West itself, the lines we like to draw between myth and reality become very, very hard to define. (Crow)
  • Big Questions in U.S. HistoryThis class will serve as an introduction to the college level study of United States history through readings of some important new and classic works on the topic. We will move chronologically through the trajectory of U.S. history from colonial beginnings to the present, and we will move thematically through different approaches to trying to understand that history.Our goal will be to access the utility of different methodological approaches (social, economic, intellectual, cultural, psychological, political history) as well as different emphases or fields (race, class, gender, sexuality, elites and institutions, global influences, public policy and philosophy, etc.).Some of our major questions will include: what is the legacy of the Puritan social and religious experience for subsequent history; what are the origins of the American Revolution and the U.S. Constitution; can U.S. history be described as a story of the progress of liberty, and if so, liberty for what; was the Civil War inevitable; what is the relationship between economic change, global power, and the growth of the power and reach of the state; is there such a thing as an American identity; and finally, what, if anything, can we identify as the motor of historical change? (Crow)
  • The History of StuffWhat do people want and what have they done to get it? This class explores the impact that the desire for and pursuit of "stuff" has had on the development of the modern world. In this course we will examine the history of various critical material objects and commodities, the history of how those commodities were transported and sold, and the history of how these commodities, or "stuff," became corporate, ubiquitous, and essential to American life.The class will be divided into three units.The first will focus on the history of various colonial products like cod, sugar, and tobacco.This unit will examine how the desire for certain goods drove the expansion and unique development of the New World. The second unit will explore the history of the transportation of products within the United States as America shifted from a predominantly pre-modern agricultural society, where people made most of the things that they used, to a modern, industrial (and post-industrial) one where people buy all of the things they need.It will ask how it is that the need to move products drove American development and industrialization. In the last unit we will look at the history and future of American ideas about consumption. Broadly, this class will ask what the things that humans grow, make, desire, acquire, change, produce, sell, and throw away can tell us about people's values. We will also consider how those goods and values have prompted people to explore their globe, establish empires, enslave their fellow humans, stretch their imaginations and resources, and ultimately transform their world. (Free)
  • The History of New York CityThis course examines the history of New York City from its founding by the Dutch in the early 17th century to the present. We will investigate the city's beginnings as a minor trading post and provincial capITA that sat on the edge of the Atlantic world; the emergence in the late 17th and 18th centuries of a distinctive urban culture that prized acquisitiveness and featured multi-layered social divisions; the city's emergence in the first half of the 19th century as the dominant metropolis in North America; the development of the corporate headquarters complex; dynamic relationships between urban popular culture and high culture and between tall buildings and suburbanization; the shift from a commercial and manufacturing economy to one based on finance and services; the rise of the post-industrial society.Special attention will be paid to analyzing the construction of economic and social arrangements and to seeing New York City in its national and international contexts. (Hood)
  • Race and Gender in the Making of AmericaLabor, race, and gender have always played a central role in the making of America.From the beginning of the colony, labor took many forms, most of which we would understand as unfree, for example, indentured servitude and slavery. Race and gender have also been central organizing principles in the American experience as the Atlantic Slave Trade brought Africans to the American colonies to work as slaves and women were accorded secondary legal, political, and economic status. Far from being mutually exclusive, the relationship between labor, race, and gender was closely interrelated in the history of the colonies. This course investigates the interrelationship between these three organizing principles and the integral role they played in the making of America in the colonial period and beyond.
  • A History of Domestic Life This course explores what it was like at home for Americans throughout its history. It will consider some basic questions about human lives: What did people eat? Where and in what arrangements did they sleep? What did they wear? What did they grow or buy? What did they do with leisure time? Did they even have leisure time? Using the home in all its many variations in American history as a focus, from longhouses and pueblos, cabins and tenements, farms and McMansions, this class will explore the history of the mundane realities of people's domestic lives in the past. It will also consider the impact of public transformations such as technological developments and ideological shifts on the practices and habits of everyday living.

HIST 112 Soccer: Around the World Soccer (football) is undisputedly the most popular sport in the world and is watched weekly by literally hundreds of millions of people across the globe. This game is said to foster community and is widely understood to generate affective relationships powerful enough to exceed the everyday social divisions which order the world we live in. However, what is not apparent in this rhetorical understanding of the ‘beautiful game' is how soccer is also implicated in both creating and maintaining the very divides that it supposedly has the ability to transcend. This course provides a whirlwind tour of the sport that explores its industrial roots, its dissemination around the world, and with scheduled pit stops on five continents, makes visible the sometimes hopeful, oftentimes violent, and always controversial nature of the beautiful game's rich past. (Slade)

HIST 120/ASN 120Making of the SamuraiImages of samurai are ubiquitous today in movies, computer games, comic books and animations, historical novels, and even advertisements. But who were the samurai in Japanese history, and what did they do? When did they emerge, and where did they stand in society? What did they eat, and how did they go about their day-to-day lives? How were they perceived by their contemporaries, and how did they see themselves? When did today's images of the samurai come about, and how? These are some of the questions we will address in this course, Making of the Samurai. In the process, we will also work on critical writing, reading, and thinking skills. (Yoshikawa)

HIST 151Food Systems in HistoryThis course traces the historical emergence of the contemporary world food system. Students briefly examine the transition from hunter-gathering to Neolithic village agriculture, the differentiation between steppe agriculture and steppe nomadism in ancient Eurasia and the medieval agricultural systems of East Europe and Asia. In the second half, students examine the development of the present-day global food system since 1500. An important course goal is to understand the meaning of changes in the food systems for individual lives. (Whitten,offered alternate years)

HIST 201Tudor-Stuart BritainThis course examines the most turbulent period in the history of the British Isles (1485-1714) at the end of which a new nation, "Great Britain," emerged as the world's first global superpower. Vivid primary sources and contentious historiography will take us through the Tudor reformations, the Stuart revolutions, the rise and rationalization of Protestantism, social polarization, and the economic and cultural shifts that set the stage for Britain's industrialization and empire. (Kadane,offered annually)

HIST 202Japan Since 1868This course surveys the formation and development of Japanese state and society, from the proclamation of the Meiji state to the present. It deals with Japan's domestic continuities and changes in their regional and global context, and pays particular attention to its pre-1945 imperialism and colonialism in Asia. The course also examines Japan's postwar development and postcolonial relationship with its neighboring nations that were formerly under its imperialist aggression. (Yoshikawa,offered alternate years)

HIST 205Modern Mexican HistoryThis course examines the construction of Mexican national culture through the formation of the modern Mexican state, from 1810 to the present. Mexico emerged as a nation-state as part of a larger, transnational process of democratic-nationalist revolutions, steeped in the languages and ideologies of nationalism, liberalism, and democracy. In applying these new models of society, however, elite state-builders continued to bar large sectors of the population from access to social citizenship based on ethnic, class, and gender exclusionary criteria. This contradiction has continued to haunt Mexico throughout history. This course is a historical examination of how social citizenship and "Mexicanness" have been understood and disputed across racial, class, gender, and regional lines, beginning with the nation's foundational contradiction. (Ristow,offered annually)

HIST 207United States History in the Age of Revolution 1776-1884 This course explores the origins and major events of the American Revolution, from the French and Indian War through the ratification of the Constitution. Special attention is given to the development of Revolutionary ideology, the social and economic changes of the Revolutionary period, the role women and African Americans played in the struggle, and competing interpretations of the Revolution by scholars. (Crow, Offered occasionally)

HIST 208Women in American HistoryThis class surveys four centuries of American women's experiences, focusing on how women's status was determined, maintained, and contested. It examines themes of patriarchy, power, autonomy, dependence, and agency, and considers how issues of class, race, and sexuality have shaped women's interactions with each other and with men. It also explores the changing social rules that define gender roles, and investigates the way that women and men have dealt with those rules and expectations over time. (Free,offered annually)

HIST 209History of Medieval WomenThis class challenges this assumption by introducing the major historical questions, people, trends, and texts relating to women in the Middle Ages. Beginning with the end of the Roman world and ending in 1500 CE, this course will focus on four topics relating to women: marriage, work, the body, and religiosity. For each section, the class will explore how these categories change over time in the medieval period within Europe. Also in each section, an entire class period will be devoted to the life of a medieval woman whose life and writings reflected the questions of that period. (Whitten)

HIST 212 Historical Research Methods This course uses the physical and social landscapes of the Colleges as a laboratory to help students refine their historical research, writing, and critical thinking skills. The course will be conducted as a seminar and as a workshop, with discussions of readings and research problems and with hands-on and in-depth historical investigations. We will visit local historical archives, hear guest speakers, and take a van tour of Geneva. We will put HWS in the larger contexts of the history of higher education and of Geneva itself. Working with primary historical materials, students will produce individual research projects on some aspect of the history of the Colleges. Possibilities include the history of: the coordinate system in different periods; campus unrest in the 1960's and 1970's; the experiences of the first William Smith graduating class; college buildings; curricula changes; student life; and the Navy V-12 program during World War II. (Hood, offered annually)

HIST 215American Urban HistoryThis course examines the urbanization of American society from the colonial period to the present, with emphasis on the development of the physical city. It explores the establishment and growth of colonial cities; the impact of technological innovations such as mass transit and the automobile on urban spatial form; the changing responses to urban problems such as water, fire, pollution, housing, crime and disorder; the advent of city planning; the relationship between ethnic and racial conflicts and urban form, especially suburbanization; and the rise of the contemporary decentralized city. (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 220Early Medieval Europe Early medieval Europe and the Mediterranean shared an inheritance from the Roman world of Roman institutions, Christianity, and barbarian identities. The civilizations that developed in the West including the Merovingians, Lombards, Carolingians, Byzantines, and early Islamic dynasties were profoundly shaped by all these components in varied ways. Beginning with the later Roman Empire, the course is organized around political shifts but also covers developments in religious, legal, economic, social, and cultural history. Major themes of the class include the changing nature of religious authority, political fragmentation, and legal transformation. (Whitten)

HIST 226Latin America: Colonial PeriodThis course is a survey of the forces and events that shaped Spanish America, from pre-contact societies in the Americas and Europe, to the American independence movements of the nineteenth-century. Chronologically, this course will focus on five periods: pre-Columbian societies in the Americas and Europe; the violent conquest of the "New World" by Spanish conquistadores; the immediate aftermath of conquest and the consolidation of Spanish authority (c. 1530-1600); the establishment of stability and Spanish colonial rule (c. 1600-1800); and the fall of the Spanish Empire (c. 1730s-1810). The two key geographical areas of examination will be Central Mexico, and the Central Andes. Conceptually, this course will focus on the interrelated concepts of conquest and colonialism, paying close attention to the delicate balance of coercion and persuasion in the construction of the Spanish colonial regime. (Ristow,offered annually)

HIST 227African American History IThis course traces the history of Africans and their descendants in America from the 17th century through the Civil War. Topics include the slave trade from Africa to the English colonies in North America; establishment of the slave system and slave laws in the 17th century; the evolution of slavery and slave culture in the 18th century; transformations in African American life during the Revolutionary age; the experience of free blacks in the North and South; black society in the Old South; black abolitionism; the Civil War; and Emancipation. (Gayle,offered annually)

HIST 228African American History IIThis course examines the varied experiences of African Americans from Reconstruction to the present, focusing on class and gender differences within African American society as well as on the fight for social and political equality in America. Major topics include Reconstruction in the South; African American intellectuals; the Great Migration; the Civil Rights movement; black power; and contemporary problems. (Gayle,offered annually)

HIST 229Public HistoryThis course will examine the origins and evolution of public history from the 19th to the 21st centuries. Public history blends academic research and a wide variety of production skills to engage popular audiences in discovering history; museum exhibits, television networks such as The History Channel, and national historical sites are examples of public history. We will develop critical thinking skills by visiting exhibits; viewing documentaries; reading historic markers, brochures, and popular books; and evaluating the content of public history websites. The course will explore the wide range of public history career options and examine the required skills. We will be creating public history products throughout the course. Prerequisites: No first year students; at least one 100 level History course. (John Marks,Fall)

HIST 231Modern Latin AmericaThis course will trace out the historical construction of national and regional identities in Latin America through an examination of paradigms of modernity and marginality. It will focus on: the continuities and ruptures from Spanish colonialism to nation-state rule; the imposition of stability in Latin America, and the ideological foundations of the dominant, transnational paradigm of progress; identity politics and the rejection of European paradigms of progress; the coming and process of the global paradigm of Cold War, and its new models of anxiety, hope, and marginality in Latin America; the survival and even prosperity of Latin America's indigenous populations in the era of neoliberalism. In so doing, we will examine the possibilities for the most marginal of populations to represent themselves, and the limitations of such self-representation. (Ristow,offered annually).

HIST 233History of American Thought to 1865This course traces the development of major ideas in a broad array of fields, including politics, religion, psychology, and history, through the Civil War era. While it focuses chiefly on formal thought, it also pays attention to trends in popular culture and to the social context. It relies heavily on primary source readings, a number of which are literary in character. Some questions examined involve the relationship between intellectual and social change, the distinctiveness of American thought, and the role of an intellectual elite in a democratic society. (Crow)

HIST 234History of American Thought from 1865This course covers the history of American thought and culture from the late Victorian period to the present, examining forces that led Americans to rebel against the Victorian world view and which were responsible for the rise of Modernism. Social and political thought are emphasized, but the rise of the social sciences, new philosophical movements, theology and aesthetics, American identity, the emergence of the university as a major cultural institution, and the role of the intellectual in modern America are also discussed. There is no prerequisite, but HIST 336 is recommended. (Crow)

HIST 235Civil War and ReconstructionIn America's mid-nineteenth century, rising tensions over slavery's expansion, diverging ideas about federalism, and polarizing sectional identities erupted into violence, leading to four years of protracted, brutal war. The outcome was nothing less than revolutionary: the nation's political structures, economic systems, and social hierarchies were transformed. Paying careful attention to Americans' lived experiences, in this course we will seek to understand how and why the Civil War began, what changes it wrought, whether or not its fundamental conflicts were solved by Reconstruction, and finally, why it continues to have such a profound impact on America's vision of itself even today. (Free)

HIST 237Europe Since the WarThis course examines the remarkable revival and reconstruction of Europe in the post World War II era, exploring the division of Europe into two blocs, economic recovery, the formation of welfare states, decolonization, and supranational associations, the Common Market (EEC), NATO, and the Warsaw Pact. Special emphasis is placed on European relations with the U.S. and the former U.S.S.R. Students explore consequences of the end of the Cold War, including attempts to construct democracies and market economies in Eastern Europe, political turmoil, and the resurgence of nationalism in Western Europe. (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 238World Wars in Global PerspectiveThe American century; the formation of Communist states; genocides, including the Armenian massacres and the destruction of European Jewry; the ongoing crisis in the Middle East; and the relative decline of Europe and decolonization were all closely linked to the two world wars. This course explores these two cataclysmic wars: their origins, conduct, and consequences. In addition to such traditional approaches as military, political, and diplomatic history, students use literary, artistic, and cinematic representations to view these wars through personal experiences. (Linton,Fall)

HIST 240Immigration and Ethnicity in AmericaWhat is an American? This course examines this question by analyzing the sources of mass immigration to the United States, the encounters among various immigrant groups and natives, and the changing conceptions of ethnicity. The course covers the period from the 1840s to the present. It starts with the Irish and Germans who emigrated in the early 19th century, then consider the Russian Jews, Italians, and others who began arriving in the 1890s, and then investigates the post-1965 emigration from Asia, the Americas, and India that is remaking the country today. Reference is also made to the internal migrations of African Americans. (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 242Riding with Genghis KhanGenghis Khan and his descendants rode hard, fought bloody battles, envisioned world conquest, and drank copiously. They also created the largest contiguous empire in the world, ruled over this empire effectively, and fostered cultural exchange across Eurasia at an unprecedented scale. After its fall, the empire's legacies continued to impact Eurasian history. This course explores aspects of this great empire, from its Central Asian nomadic origins to the Mongol predicament after its fall. Our main foci are the Genghisids and the Mongol empire. Learn about the awesome Mongol battle strategies and their administration that led to Pax Mongolica. Encounter the long-distance maritime and overland trades that brought riches to the Mongol courts. Explore how Mongols lived every day, and how they saw the world around them. Investigate how they adapted to natural surroundings, and how they interacted with their human neighbors, most famously the Chinese and the Persians. Consider why the great Khan remains widely known today, and why so many myths surround him. Let's ride through history with Genghis. (Yoshikawa, offered alternate years)

HIST 243U.S. Constitution to 1865This course examines the development of constitutionalism in what would become the United States from its origins in medieval and early modern English law and institutions to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, the codification of slavery, the Marshall Court, expansion policy, the American Civil War, and the beginning of Reconstruction. Major themes include the legacy of colonial and imperial governance for subsequent American history, the changing politics of constitutional interpretation, the politics of slavery, law, labor, and economic change, and the shifting grounds of legitimacy for the exercise of power on the national level. (Crow)

HIST 244U.S. Constitution Since 1865This course will examine the history of American constitutionalism and constitutional politics from Reconstruction and Jim Crow segregation and the pinnacle of the Gilded Age through to progressivism, legal realism and pragmatism as modes of constitutional interpretation, the New Deal and the Supreme Court, the Civil rights Movement, modern struggles over abortion, affirmative action, the Equal Rights Amendment, and gay rights, originalism and the impact of the rise of modern conservatism, the imperial presidency, and the constitutional implications of the threat of terrorism and the condition of perpetual war. Major themes will include the status of the Constitution in national political life, the dramatic increase in the size and power of the state, the challenges of pluralism, and the relationship between political conflict, social change, and economic development on the one hand and constitutionalism on the other. (Crow)

HIST 246American Environmental HistoryIn this course, historical place in the natural landscape is described through the methods of "environmental history," embracing three concerns: ecological relationships between humans and nature, political and economic influences on the environment, and cultural conceptions of the natural world. Drawing on methods from the natural and social sciences, and the humanities, students will survey 500 years of American environmental history, from the ecological conflicts of Indians and settlers to recent debates over endangered species and hazardous wastes. Topics range from urban pollution and suburban sprawl to agricultural practices and wilderness protection. (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 250Medieval Popular CultureWhat is the relationship between "high" and "low" culture? How do "oral" cultures think, and how have literacy and electronic media transformed human consciousness in more recent times? Close exploration of the material conditions of peasant life, of the psychological workings of folklore, magic, witchcraft, and play in culture help students come to terms with these issues. We assess the historical consequences of oppression within the political structure of the "three estates" and evaluate the efficacy of various techniques of popular resistance. In the end, we assess the value of play in sustaining social cohesion, emotional stability and personal freedom in our historical heritage. (Whitten,offered annually)

HIST 253 Renaissance & Reformation This course explores the major intellectual, artistic, political, and religious events making up the "Renaissance" and the "Reformation," two of the most energetic and creative moments in western history. Students read the works of several principal architects of these movements, along with contemporary historians' attempts to explain the convergence of individual genius and collective cooperation that took place between 1300 and 1600. The period shattered medieval understanding of the nature of reality, the shape of the cosmos, and the relation between man and god. It was in this period that modern notions of individualism, freedom of conscience and national sovereignty began to shape the modern world. (Whitten)

HIST 256Technology and SocietyThe coming of modern machinery has fundamentally altered the nature of work, and has thoroughly transformed communications, warfare, international relations, leisure time, and the arts. This course examines the impact of machinery on social relations and human relations to nature. It explores the promotion and institutionalization of technical innovation in the last two centuries in Europe. Finally, it views the conflicting intellectual and social responses to technological change, ranging from fantasies of technocratic utopias to machine smashing and dark visions of humanity displaced and dominated by mechanized systems. (Linton,Fall, offered alternate years)

HIST 264Modern European CityThis course examines the emergence and development of new industrial cities, such as Manchester and Bochum, and the transformation of older administrative and cultural centers such as Paris and Vienna. The course emphasizes the ways in which contrasting visions of the city as "source of crime and pathology" or "fount of economic dynamism and democratic sociability" were expressed and embodied in city planning, reform movements, and the arts. In exploring the modern city, students use perspectives derived from European and American social and political thought and employ literary, statistical, and visual source materials. (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 272Nazi GermanyNazi Germany and the Hitler Regime remain epitomes of political evil. This course explores the formation, ideology, and dynamic of the Third Reich, concentrating on politics, economics, social policy, and cultural policies of the regime. Students examine the combination of terror and everyday life, utopian promise, and the extermination of Jews and other minorities that lay at the heart of Hitler's regime. They also consider the ways in which the regime has been interpreted by historians and political scientists and the way the Nazi regime has been represented since its defeat in 1945. (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 276The Age of DictatorsEuropean one-party dictatorships that used state organs to mobilize mass support and unleash unprecedented levels of coercion and terror directed at their own populations still haunt our memory and understanding of the 20th century. This course examines and compares the origins and dynamics of Stalin's Soviet Union, Mussolini's Italy, and Hitler's Germany, and their ways of securing popular support and eliminating opposition. The class critically explores theories and concepts used to classify and categorize these regimes: "totalitarianism," "fascism," "bonapartist dictatorships." (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 283 S. Africa in Transition After a long period of colonialist domination, exploitation, racial humiliation, and destructive wars, southern Africa is emerging as a land of renewed hope for peace, stability and prosperity. This transition is explored in this course from the late 19th century to the rise of Nelson Mandela. By placing greater emphasis on South Africa, the course investigates such themes as the rise and demise of apartheid, wars of national liberation, economic development, demographic and environmental concerns, and democratization and the construction of pluralist societies. (Slade)

HIST 284 Africa: From Colonial to Neocolonial In the US media, the signifier `Africa' has become synonymous with images of warfare, poverty, disease, and famine. Undeniably, these features are commonplace in some African societies. However, what is insidiously missing in most accounts of the challenges facing pails of the continent is a historical perspective that traces a genealogy of these problems. Events like the Rwandan Genocide are unproblematically explained as having been caused by 'ethnic conflict,' a calculus that does not consider the manner in which colonial encroachment fundamentally altered the socio-political landscape of the continent. In short, to understand modern-day Africa we need to be attentive to the processes that created its everyday realities. To this end, students will investigate the legacies of colonialism in key sites dotted throughout Africa, and examine how contemporary power relations [neo-colonialism] continue to impact the continent. (Slade)

HIST 286Plants and EmpireAfter the 15th century, European empires dramatically transformed the geographical distribution of plants with enormous social, economic, cultural and biological consequences. The plantation system was a new form of economic enterprise dedicated to the production of a single cash crop usually brought from elsewhere such as sugar, tobacco, or cotton grown for distant markets. European administrators and merchants developed international trade in stimulants such as coffee and tea, medicinal plants such as cinchona bark (quinine), dye plants such as indigo, narcotics such as opium, food crops such as wheat and garden plants such as tulips and tree peonies. Students trace the globalization of traffic in plants and its consequences from Columbus to contemporary debates over genetically modified crops and bioprospecting. (Linton)

HIST 292Japan Before 1868This course explores the Japanese past since the Paleolithic age to the late nineteenth century. It examines the lives of early settlers on the archipelago, the establishment of the Yamato court, and aristocratic and warrior rule, the sixteenth century "unification of Japan," and the pacification of the realm under the Tokugawa government. We will explore various aspects of Japanese state and society, such as politics, economy, ideology, as well as their interaction with the environment and cultures around them. (Yoshikawa,offered alternate years)

HIST 297Law in the Pre-Modern Mediterranean WorldStarting with the creation of Roman Law, this class traces the major legal developments across the Mediterranean World until the Renaissance. The course focuses on the development of barbarian law, religious law (canon, rabbinic, and Islamic law), and English common law. The class also problematizes these changes by exploring dispute resolution and extra-judicial violence. (Whitten)

HIST 298Exploring Modern ChinaThis course explores "modern China" and what it means to study it as history. Topics under examination include the fate of the "Chinese" imperial system as foreign elements penetrated the Sino-centric world order and "Chinese" efforts to establish a viable "modern" nation state following the Qing demise. Throughout the semester, we will pay particular attention to the notions of "modern" and "Chinese," and whether these two terms are useful in understanding the historical experiences of the people of what we know as "China" today. (Yoshikawa)

HIST 301The EnlightenmentMany people in the West no longer believe in the divine rights of monarchs or the literal meanings of ancient religious texts, but find meaning in civil society, material life, and science, and uphold the sanctity of human equality, which they experience through relatively unrestrained access to various news media, conversations held in accessible social spaces, and schooling premised on the belief that education and experience shape the human mind. How responsible is the 18th-century movement of rigorous criticism and cultural renewal known as "the Enlightenment"? Students examine its coherence as a movement, its major themes and proponents, its meaning for ordinary people, its varied interpretations, its spread throughout Europe and beyond, and the more sinister cultural institutions and projects that many Enlightenment figures were reluctant to interrogate. (Kadane,offered annually)

HIST 304 Early American Republic: 1789-1840 This course is a seminar that will allow students to explore current scholarship in the vibrant field of the early republic, from the end of the American Revolution through the antebellum period in the nineteenth century. Themes include western expansion and Native American history, race and slavery, political history and the rise of the party system, exploration and empire, gender and sexuality, the history of capitalism, and the rise of American literature and legal and political thought. By the end of the class, each student will develop and produce an independent research paper on a historical or historiographical question of their own.

HIST 305Showa through the Silver ScreenShowa (1926-1989), the reign of Hirohito, is most often associated with Japan's plunge into multiple wars, its occupation by a foreign nation, and its economic recovery to become the second largest economy in the world. Less explored is Showa as the heyday of Japanese cinema. While motion pictures were first introduced to Japan in the late 19th century, domestic production only took off in the 1920s to the 1930s. Following the Asia-pacific Wars, Japanese film gained worldwide popularity in the 1950s and 1960s with directors such as Kurosawa Akira, Ozu Yasujiro, and Mizoguchi Kenji gaining international recognition. By the end of Showa, Japanese cinema was in decline as other forms of entertainment overshadowed movie going and a massive recession affected the film industry. This course explores the history of the Showa period using films as artifacts of Japanese perspectives into their state and society and the Japanese role in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. (Yoshikawa)

HIST 306Seminar: U.S. Civil WarThis seminar-style course is a follow up to History 235, exploring in greater depth and complexity the causes and outcomes of the American Civil War. Some questions we may consider: Why did the War begin? What role did slavery's expansion play? How did Americans understand the idea of "Union"? Why did they engage in "total war"? How did the massive casualty rate change how people experienced and understood death? How did the formerly enslaved claim power in the post-war period? Was Reconstruction a failure? Why does the Civil War continue to matter? Ultimately, we will hope to better understand why Americans went to war with themselves in the mid-nineteenth century, and how that war transformed the nation. Prerequisite: HIST 235 or instructor's approval. (Free)

HIST 308The Historian's CraftThis course will introduce the methods and theories that have been particularly influential in shaping the work and profession of historians in the last several decades. Attention will be given to a broad range of approaches, with the goal of understanding the arguments, assumptions, and perspectives that mold out sense of the past. (Kadane)

HIST 310Rise of Industrial AmericaThe main theme of this course is the multiple meanings for diverse Americans of the triumph of an urban/industrial society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The nature of industrial leadership, immigration and urbanization, and analyses of major political and social reform movements are among the topics to be covered. (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 31120th Century AmericaThis course is a continuation of HIST 310. World War I and its aftermath, economic and social changes in the 1920s, interaction between politics and urbanization, the Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the New Deal are among the topics to be covered. (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 313Darwinian RevolutionThis course first examines the life and work of Charles Darwin focusing on the genesis of his theory of evolution and then explores the ramifications of the Darwinian revolution both for the natural and human sciences and for broader religious, cultural, and political life. The course investigates what the Darwinian revolution tells about scientific revolutions and about the use and abuse of science in the modern world. The emphasis will be on Darwinian revolution in Europe, but attention will be paid to Darwin's fate in the Americas and Asia. (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 317Women's Rights Movements in U.S.This course examines the creation and development of women's rights movements in the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries, two centuries that witnessed the explosion of movements for women's emancipation. Students explore the social, legal, political and economic conditions of women at different historical moments along with the efforts of women (and men) to change those conditions. Women often differed about what the most important issues facing their sex were. Consequently, this course examines not only the issues that have united women, but also the issues that have divided them. Prerequisite: WMST 100 or HIST 208 or Instructor's approval. (Free,offered alternate years)

HIST 318Making of the Individualist SelfSelf-consciousness may be one of the few human attributes that has existed outside of history and regardless of culture. But the self itself, the subject and object of self-consciousness, has been understood with enormous variation through time and across the globe. This seminar explores a very influential conception of selfhood: the "individualist self," the self-driven by belief in its coherence and its own goals, set in contrast to other selves and other structures, and indebted for its origins to the major shifts that took place in western Europe in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Attention is given to the Protestant Reformation, encounters with new and ancient worlds, and the spread of experimental science, representative government, and capitalism. Students also examine historical sources most intimately connected with this phenomenon: the written forms (diaries, autobiographies, and other self-examination exercises) through which people documented their existence and came to constitute and reflect a new mode of self-understanding and engagement with the world. (Kadane,offered every three years)

HIST 320The Asia Pacific WarsThis course attempts to survey the multiple memories and histories of the Asia-Pacific Wars among the people of North East Asia and the United States. We will examine changes and continuities in these views in the framework of regional politics and economy since 1945, focusing on such controversial issues as the Nanjing massacre, "comfort women," Pearl Harbor, war and racism, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Smithsonian Enola Gay exhibit, and history textbooks. In the broadest context, the course explores the history of imperialism and colonialism in Asia-Pacific since the late nineteenth century and the importance of "history" and "memory" in understanding its consequences. We will be reading a variety of secondary materials. (Yoshikawa)

HIST 324The Worlds of Civilized BarbariansIn 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu ended decades-long civil war on Japanese archipelago, "united" the realm, and founded the Edo (Tokugawa) period. In 1644, the Manchu overthrew the Chinese Ming dynasty and established the Qing rule. Both regimes lasted for 268 years, until 1868 and 1912. This course explores the political, social, economic, ecological, cultural, and intellectual histories of these two regimes. Through examination of major secondary sources on these topics, students will become familiar with the recent historiographical trends in the two subjects. They will also assess the relevance of comparative or parallel historical approaches when studying these two important eras in North East Asia. (Yoshikawa)

HIST 325Seminar: Medicine in Modern EuropeThis course traces the development of major ideas in a broad array of fields, including politics, religion, psychology, and history, through the Civil War era. While it focuses chiefly on formal thought, it also pays attention to trends in popular culture and to the social context. It relies heavily on primary source readings, a number of which are literary in character. Some questions examined involve the relationship between intellectual and social change, the distinctiveness of American thought, and the role of an intellectual elite in a democratic society. (Linton,offered alternate years)

HIST 327Human Rights: Cold War and US Intervention in Central AmericaThis seminar will investigate massive human rights violations, their documentation's, and the peace process in Central America in the second half of the twentieth century, with a special focus in the role of United States' intervention. During the Cold War, no region in the world was more integrated into the security strategy and political economy of the United States that was Central America, and nowhere did the transformation of U.S. foreign policy from the principle of national self-determination to overt military and economic imperialism ring clearer. At the same time, no region in the world experienced more egregious and violent crimes against human rights than, in particular, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. While these governments actively thwarted and violently suppressed democratic social movements, revolutionary forces, and regimes committed to social justice, the United States used civil conflicts in the region as a pretext for intervention, and actively aided in their escalation. That said, the U.S. government's support for brutally repressive regimes in Central America also generated a powerful humanitarian response both within the United States and in the international community. Finally, this course will examine how humanitarian instruments and organizations sought to uncover the truth about human rights abuses, negotiate peace, and, less successfully, implement justice in Central America. Prerequisites: At least one course in Latin American studies or cross-listed, or instructor permission. (Ristow,Spring, offered alternate years)

HIST 330 Mexican Revolution The first "great" revolution of the twentieth century, the Mexican Revolution of 1910 transformed Mexican political culture and shaped the modern Mexican State. In this course we will study the coming and process of the Mexican Revolution from its nineteenth-century roots, through decade violence, terror, and hunger (1910-1920). We will examine how the process of revolution expanded the rose from the ashes of civil war. (1920-1940). We will examine how the process of revolution expanded the Mexican State to include previously excluded groups in a new political sphere. Specifically, we will look at land reform, class politics, racial ideology, public education, patriarchy, religion, and popular art to get a sense of how Mexico changed with the Revolution. Finally, we will address the question that has haunted Mexican politics t the present day: did Mexico even have a revolution?

HIST 331Law in AfricaContemporary African legal systems combine many different forms of law, from precolonial "customary law" to shari'a to constitutions that explicit protect human rights. The legal systems of some countries contain all three of these types of law, and more. In this class, we will explore the roots of Africa's legal pluralism. We will analyze the way that precolonial systems of "customary law" were changed by European colonization, the writing of African constitutions during decolonization, the spread of Islamic law, and the development of new forms of international law such as the International Criminal Court.

HIST 332Slavery in AfricaBetween 1525 and 1875, more than 12.5 million Africans departed the continent as part of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. How did this massive forced migration change the continent? Why did some African rulers participate in the slave trade? How did the trans-Atlantic slave trade change the institution of slavery in Africa itself? Did the trans-Atlantic slave trade contribute to later forms of political instability in Africa? In this class, we will trace the political, social, economic, and cultural impact to the rise and fall of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on the African continent.

HIST 334Pre-Modern MediterraneanThis course explores the primary sources of the pre-modern Mediterranean world and how historians have used these texts to compose histories of the Middle Ages and understand the present. Topics include medieval biography, the relationship between science and history, Norman history writing and language, and medieval travel writing. (Whitten)

HIST 345The Racial Construction of America: Identity, Citizenship, and Rights The words of the Declaration of Independence assert that "All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." This high ideal has guided and shaped American ideology, self-perceptions, and national identity from the moment of the nation's founding until today. This course will explore and critically engage the ideal of American identity as viewed through the lens of race. Through an engagement of primary and secondary sources, we will explore how understandings of race has informed notions of equality, citizenship, rights, as experienced by Native Americans, African Americans, Asians, European Immigrants, Latinos, and Whites.

HIST 348Black Women in the Struggle for Rights in America: from Phillis Wheatley to Black Lives MatterBlack Women in the Struggle for Rights in America: from Phillis Wheatley to Black Lives Matter From the founding of the United States, the concept of rights and citizens bearing those rights were understood to be a central part of American democracy and belonging. And yet, not all people in the nation were accorded rights. For example, the right to vote, serve on juries, and travel were reserved almost exclusively for property-owning white males. Indeed it is not a stretch to say that the next two hundred years of American history can be seen as a struggle to expand both the scope of and access to those rights. Many courses examine the history of rights form the standpoint of white people (men and/or women), black men, or workers. Borrowing from the insights of theses perspectives, this course examines the contributions that black women have played in shaping the struggle for rights in the changing political, social, and cultural contexts of the United States from the eighteenth through twenty-first centuries.

HIST 351 Freud and the Problem of Authority Dr. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was a major figure in 20th century European and American intellectual life. His works on the unconscious, human sexuality, and the neuroses were not only foundational for psychoanalysis, but also had an enormous impact on the arts, literature, films, and social thought. During his lifetime Freud was celebrated and condemned as an intrepid explorer of the human mind and an advocate of sexual liberation. This course will provide a contextualized introduction to Freud's fundamental concepts and his theories of human sexuality and mental dynamics. Central to the course will be Freud's analysis and critiques of authority in the family, religion, politics, and even psychoanalysis itself. The course will then explore some of the key reasons for Freud's seminal influence in post-World War II Western Europe and the U.S. and why the authority of his works has diminished amidst acrimonious controversies since the 1970s. (Linton)

HIST 352Wealth, Power and PrestigeExercising power that is entirely disproportionate to their small numbers, elites have shaped American society by making political and economic decisions and by influencing cultural values. This seminar explores the history, social composition, and power of elites in American history by asking questions such as: What groups should be considered elites? Who belongs to elites, who doesn't, and why? How have the makeup and authority of elites changed in U.S. history? How do elites use power and understand themselves and their roles? How do elites seek to legitimate themselves in a society that prizes democracy and that, since the mid-20th century, has increasingly valued egalitarianism? What is the importance of elites for social inequality, economic growth, and race, ethnicity, and gender? How are changing understandings of rank, class, wealth, and equality reflected in the cultural realm, especially in the "self-help" literature? How is opposition to elites expressed politically and culturally? (Hood,offered alternate years)

HIST 353 Invention of Africa Africa, and by extension, the African, is firmly rooted at the bottom of the present-day world order. In a world in which technological advancement and economic growth is valued above all else, this pecking order may seem objective, or even commonsensical. However, it is this mapping of place onto body - Africa is ‘unmodern' therefore the African is ‘unmodern' - that continues to have consequences for the black body, both on the continent and in the diaspora. For example, the #BlackLivesMatter movement in the US bears testimony to how knowledge regarding the black body is configured differently within a Western context despite constitutionally-guaranteed rights to the contrary. This course therefore examines the conceptual architecture that has invented Africa, and by extension the African. Students will trace a genealogy of thought, originally packaged as European colonialism's ‘civilizing mission', and repurposed since the end of formal colonialism to ensure the maintenance of a racial order congruent with colonial orthodoxy. (Slade)

HIST 354 Lives of Consequence What precisely is a "life of consequence"? How can we inhabit this world, with all its inequities and divisions, in an ethical fashion? Our present, rather than emerging out of an "inevitable path of human progress,' is the product of a conceptual architecture which profoundly shapes how we experience the world. Resulting from a particular historical trajectory, notions of property, reason, race, gender, belonging, and violence inform both the limits and possibilities of ethical citizenry. To make this visible, this seminar will explore the political, economic, spatial, and historical moorings of our modernity and its filial formations, the nation-state, the modern university, and capitalism. However, rather than being prescriptive and proposing a ‘universal ethics' for you to subscribe to, this course is designed to enable a serf-reflexive exploration of the values each of you hold dear as individuals. This journey will be an intensely private one meant to facilitate the creation of a personalized ethical roadmap, one you create for yourself in preparation for your future navigation of an increasingly polarized world. (Slade)

HIST 362 A Narco History of Mexico: From Drug Trade to Drug War From the legal prohibition of narcotic drugs in 1914 to the current era, Mexico has become the central axis of the international drug trade, a global trade valued at over $500 billion annually. Americans alone spend over $150 billion on marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine's, the vast majority of which are produced in or transported through Mexico. The proceeds from el narco have subsidized the rise of massive drug trafficking organizations in Mexico, known popularly as cartels, which have, since the turn of the century, transformed Mexico into the scene of a bloody-drug war. Since 2006, over 150,000 people have been killed in connection to the trade; 73,000 more have disappeared; and 250,000 have been displaced. The rise of organized crime has also transformed violence in Mexico into a public spectacle: dozens of massacres and over two thousand decapitations have been recorded, as torture and mutilation are broadcast to the country daily, sewing terror and cultivating a completely militarized society. In this course, we will examine how we got to this point: how Mexico became the center of the global drug trade in the 20th century, and why its role in the trade translated into such spectacular violence in the 21st. We will look at five chronological periods: the prohibition era (1914-1960); the origins of the 'War on Drugs' (1960-1980); the 'Mexican trampoline' (1980-1990); the Golden Age of the cartels (1990-2006); and the Drug War (2006-present). For each period, we will trace the history of one illicit drug, opium, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, and crystal meth, respectively, from production, to distribution, to consumption, to better understand the historical logic's that have driven the drug trade and its staggering violence, and that have thwarted all attempts to bring it under control.

HIST 392 Seminar: Women in JapanIntended for advanced students of Japanese history and society, the contents of this course change with the interests of the students and the instructor Prerequisite: Previous course in Asian Studies or History, or permission of the instructor. (Yoshikawa,offered alternate years)

HIST 395 Ocean, Law, and Empire: Research in Oceanic History This course is a research seminar that explores the varieties of ways we might think about the oceanic environment in historical perspective. While particular focuses will vary, the seminar will consistently focus on readings in current scholarship at the intersection of global legal and environmental history from 1500 to the present. Themes will include exploration and colonialism, legal histories of trade, navigation, and empire, slavery, fisheries and resource management, oceanography, migration, and naval conflict.(Crow)

HIST 431 History of Original SinWhat is the relationship between changing views of human nature and major historical transformations?Do the former mold or reflect the latter - or both? Or does asking the question in those terms miss the point?Are changing theories of human nature themselves the essence rather than the cause or consequence of epochal shifts? This course considers these and related questions by examining the history of the Christian doctrine of original sin. For much of the last two millennia, original sin has been the most persuasive way of capturing the view that people are flawed by nature and unfixable by their own means. That idea drove St. Augustine's influential vision of Christianity, and returning to Augustine on this very point a thousand years later (and five hundred years ago) led to conceptual breakthrough of the Protestant Reformation. Rejecting original sin and its corresponding view: the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and other ideological shifts behind the great Atlantic revolutions. And insofar as belief in original sin defines evangelicalism, much as pessimism about human nature that is traceable to original sin still underpins a strain of conservative thought, this Christian doctrine continues to haunt ideological division. (Kadane)

HIST 450 Independent Study

HIST 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study

HIST 471 Seminar: Civil War in American MemorySince the end of the Civil War Americans have sought to better understand the brutal struggle that divided families, neighbors and regions. Through the veterans' parades and public statues of the late 1800s, the films and novels of the early 1900s, the intensely impassioned debates about the Confederate battle flag of the 1990s, and the battle reenactments today, Americans have "remembered" the Civil War in varied ways, thereby assigning meanings to the conflict. This class explores these diverse meanings, interrogates why this particular moment in American history continues to fascinate and enrage Americans, and examines the complicated relationship between American history, memory, and culture. Prerequisite: Instructor's approval or HIST 235. (Free,offered alternate years)

HIST 473 Britain: Industry and EmpireThis course examines the period of Britain's global supremacy, roughly from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth. The particular focus here is on industrialization and the growth of empire. But in order to see how these processes transformed the British Isles, this course will also consider party politics, gender relations, and some of the major themes of cultural history. Prerequisites: HIST 201 or instructor approval. (Kadane)

HIST 495 Honors