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COURSE CATALOGUE : CLASSICS

Offerings in the Department of Classics explore all aspects of the languages and cultures of ancient Greece and Rome, the context of their interaction with the rest of the Mediterranean world, and their subsequent influence on our own day. The study of the classics, therefore, reveals important aspects of ancient cultures, raising new and fresh questions and insights both about antiquity and about the world in which we live. The department’s faculty is also committed to understanding, both historically and theoretically, issues of gender, class and race.

Courses in the Department of Classics invite students to discover the literatures and cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. Courses in Greek and Latin focus on important texts in the original languages; these courses aim to develop a facility in reading Greek and Latin and to sharpen skills in literary criticism. Courses in classical civilization use materials exclusively in English translation and require no prerequisites; they offer students from the entire Colleges’ community an opportunity to study classical literature and institutions in conjunction with a major, minor, or interdisciplinary work in the humanities.

The department offers disciplinary majors and minors in Classics, Latin and Greek. The department also coordinates both a disciplinary and interdisciplinary minor in Classical Studies. The Classical Studies minors approach the study of ancient Greek and Roman civilization from various directions, with various modes of inquiry. They are a less linguistically oriented alternative, offered to those who are interested in antiquity but not primarily interested in the ancient languages themselves.

All courses toward any of the majors or minors offered by Classics must be completed with a grade of C- or higher.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CLASSICS MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 12 courses
Four courses in Greek and four in Latin, including at least one 300-level course in each language. Four additional classics courses or courses approved by the department. No more than two 100-level language courses may count towards the major. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CLASSICS MINOR
disciplinary, 5 courses
Three Greek and two Latin courses or two Greek and three Latin. No more than three 100-level language courses may count towards the minor. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CLASSICAL STUDIES MINOR
disciplinary, 5 courses
Two courses in either Latin or Greek language; three additional courses, including two courses from one of the classical studies groups and one course from a second group or one from each of three different groups. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CLASSICAL STUDIES MINOR
interdisciplinary, 5 courses
Same as for the disciplinary minor, but selection of courses must include at least one course from the classical studies group in a division outside of the humanities. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GREEK MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 12 courses
Seven courses in Greek language, at least four of which must be at the 200-level and one at the 300-level; five additional courses selected from classics or other courses with appropriate content approved by the adviser. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GREEK MINOR
disciplinary, 5 courses
Five courses in Greek language, at least three of which must be at the 200-level or above. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LATIN MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 12 courses
Seven courses in Latin language, at least four of which must be at the 200-level and one at the 300-level; five additional courses selected from classics or other courses with appropriate content approved by the adviser. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LATIN MINOR
disciplinary, 5 courses
Five courses in Latin language, at least three of which must be at the 200-level or above. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. No more than one course with a CR grade may be counted towards the minor.

CLASSICAL STUDIES COURSES
History and Anthropology
ANTH 102 World Prehistory
ANTH 206 Early Cities
ANTH 210 Prehistoric Ecology
CLAS 202 Athens in the Age of Pericles
CLAS 209 Alexander the Great and His Legacy
CLAS 230 Gender and Sexuality in Antiquity
CLAS 251 The Romans: Republic to Empire
CLAS 281 Fall of the Roman Empire
CLAS 310 Sparta: Greece’s Warrior Society
HIST 220 Early Medieval Europe
HIST 308 The Historian’s Craft

Literature and Reception Studies
CLAS 108 Greek Tragedy
CLAS 112 Classical Myths
CLAS 213 Ancient Comedy and Satire
CLAS 228 Classical Epic
CLAS 240 Classics in Cinema
CLAS 290 Classical Law and Morality
GERE 212 The Cave of Western Thought
WRRH 312 Power and Persuasion

Religion and Philosophy
CLAS 125 Greek and Roman Religion
CLAS 320 From Jesus to Constantine
PHIL 370 Ancient Philosophy
REL 253 Creation Stories, why they matter
REL 254 The Question of God/Goddess
REL 258 The Qur’an and the Bible

Art
ARTH 101 Ancient and Medieval Art
ARTH 116 World Architecture
ARTH 208 Greek Art and Architecture
ARTH 303 Roman Art and Politics
CLAS 330 Greek Archaeology

CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
Courses requiring no knowledge of Greek or Latin, with no prerequisites, and suitable for first through fourth year students.

CLAS 108 Greek Tragedy This course is a reading in English translation of selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripide, the earliest examples of one of the most pervasive genres of Western literature. Each play is considered both in its own right and in relation to larger issues, such as the tragic treatment of myth, relevance to contemporary Athenian problems, and the understanding of the world that these plays might be said to imply. Through attention to matters of production, an attempt is made to imagine the effect of the plays in performance in the Athenian theatre. The course considers, in addition, possible definitions of tragedy, with the aid both of other writers¿ views and of experiences of the texts themselves. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 112 Classical Myths In this course, students study ancient creation myths, the mythology of the Olympian gods, and Greek heroic and epic saga. Particular attention is paid to ancient authors exploration of universal human themes and conflicts, mythology as an embodiment and criticism of ancient religious beliefs and practices, and the treatment of mythological themes in the ancient and modern visual arts. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 125 Greek & Roman Religion This course is an introduction to Greek and Roman religious thought and practice: the preGreek "goddess worship" of Minoan Crete, the Greek Olympians and the "mystery religions," the impersonal agricultural deities of the early Romans, the Greek and Roman philosophical schools, Christianity's conquest of the Empire and the Empire's regimentation of Christianity. Attention is paid to the practice of animal sacrifice, the Greek and Roman religious festivals, the contrast between public and private cult, the tolerance of religious diversity under paganism vs. the intolerance of monotheism, and pagan ideas of personal salvation. The course's approach is historical. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 202 Athens-Age of Pericles This course is a survey of the history of ancient Greece, from the earliest days to the time of Alexander the Great. At the course's center is the great age of Athenian democracy, so fertile in its influence on our own culture. Particular attention is paid to the social and political history, the intellectual life, the art, and the literature of that period. Issues such as democratic imperialism and the exclusion of certain categories of people from full participation in the democracy are emphasized. The course then traces democratic Athens' decline under the effects of the Peloponnesian War and Macedonian imperialism. (Offered every three years)

CLAS 209 Alexander the Great In 336 BCE Alexander acquired the throne of Macedonia but thirteen years later died in Babylon. In that time, Alexander had conquered the Persian Empire, been declared the son of the God Amun of Egypt, travelled past the Indus River, and had become involved in the acculturation of ancient cultures. Although Alexander had achieved a great deal his legacy achieved even more. In this course, we will study the man Alexander and the legacy he left behind. Alexander and his achievements offer many problems and scholars and enthusiasts have presented a multitude of interpretations. Consequently, and thankfully, a history of Alexander the Great is a wonderful entry into the world of historiography. In this course, we will examine topics such as his military genius, his administration of empire, and the mysteries surrounding his death. As the eminent Macedonian scholar Eugene Borza wrote, "it was Alexander's lot that to act as a human being was to move on a vast stage, affecting the lives of countless persons in his own day and capturing the fancies of those who lived after." (Offered every three years)

CLAS 213 Ancient Comedy The goals of the Ancient Comedy course are to introduce students to the comedies and satires of the classical world and come to understand the background and appeal of the comedies to the ancient audience. We will examine ancient comedy and satire as unique forms of expression and compare ancient works to modern notions of comedy. We will read and discuss the ancient works and the questions these plays provoke as a class and work in groups to examine more closely the reception of these works. In class, we will examine the background to and references in the plays and satires. At times, students will be asked to research these on their own. Dedicated and thoughtful participation is required as we laugh—or don't—at works by Aristophanes, Plautus, Terence, and Juvenal. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 228 Classical Epic This course includes epics from ancient Greece and Rome, which arose at critical moments in the development of their respective civilizations. Through a detailed study of these texts students examine the genre of epic poetry¿its form and style, assumptions, values, and attitudes¿along with the relation of each poem to the culture which produced it, and an eye toward similarities and differences. Epic poetry was, for these civilizations, one of the most significant bearers of their intellectual and cultural history. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 230 Gender & Sexuality in Antiquity Ancient Greek and Roman literature were powerful forces in shaping attitudes toward and expectations for men and women that have continued into the 21st century. Through readings (in English translation) of Greek and Roman literature from what were very patriarchal societies, students explore the attitudes of these ancient peoples toward issues of sex, sexuality, and gender. Students examine material written by both men and women from different classes and cultures, with a view to assessing how ancient attitudes towards sex and gender have informed our own. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 240 Classics in Cinema Films dealing with ancient subjects like history or mythology often fare quite well at the box office. In fact, throughout the history of film, movies dealing with Greco-Roman antiquity, in particular, have broken countless box office records. But why are we so fascinated with historical narratives describing events that took place millennia ago, or narratives that describe the fantastical worlds of mythology? Is it ‘just’ pure escapism, or is there some other reason why these films regularly draw audiences and make money for studios? What does it mean that films about ancient worlds still speak to us? The study of Classics in film is important for many reasons. From a Classicist’s perspective, films about the past are important because, as the chief source of popular knowledge about ancient Greece and Rome, they heavily influence how our modern world envisions and ‘understands’ the ancient one. But from the audience perspective, it is also worth asking: Why do films choose the stories they do (i.e., which historical or mythological narratives are represented, and which are not)? If movies about the distant past are allegedly recreations and interpretations of ancient source material, how accurate are they? How can we verify their accuracy? To whom are film interpretations of the ancient world beholden? What sort of decisions are made, why are they made, and/or what constraints—invisible to the audience’s eyes—might also dictate how these interpretations materialize on-screen? Is it possible to recreate an ancient world authentically? If not, should we try? Are films about ancient or Classical subjects really about the past? (Offered every three years)

CLAS 251 The Romans: Republic to Empire This class surveys the full course of ancient Roman history: royal, republican, and imperial. At its center is the "Roman Revolution," from 140 B.C. to A.D. 70: the destruction of the Republic by Julius Caesar and Augustus' founding of the Empire. Students trace the political evolution of Rome through the centuries and read several historical works by ancient authors of this period. The course also considers the everyday life of the Romans, the conditions of the rich, poor, and slave, the changing status of women, and religious and philosophical pluralism within the Empire. The course thus aims to be an introduction to Roman history and culture. (Offered every three years)

CLAS 281 The Fall of the Roman Empire Invasions and Germanic hordes, repressive regimes of late antiquity, problems with its armies, an emperor’s adoption of Christianity and a corrupt Roman government - writers, both ancient and modern, have examined these and other issues concerning the fall of the Roman Empire. The present course will approach these topics with an emphasis on reading and analyzing the primary sources in an effort to discern for ourselves the nature of the so-called decline of the Roman Empire. We will examine the Empire’s economy, culture, politics, and religion and the various perceptions of it all as we make our way through a history of the Empire. We begin with a brief look back at the beginning of the Empire and the Flavian Dynasty (c. 69 ce) and then turn to the reign of the Emperor Trajan (c. 98-117 ce). Then, we will work our way toward 476 ce and complete the course with a brief study of the emperor Justinian (527-565 ce). The core of this course is a survey of the Roman Empire - its culture, economy, politics, and religions - from 117 ce to 476 ce, and the examination of the changes that took place during this period that ultimately led to the end of the Roman Empire. Dedicated and thoughtful participation is required as we will read copious amounts of primary and secondary sources. Although there is no prerequisite for this course, CLAS 251 or a solid background in antiquity is strongly recommended. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 290 Classical Law and Morality What did the law protect? How did the ancient Greeks and Romans administer justice? How did the courts operate and what were the penalties? How were law and morality connected and, how were they distinct? In this course, we will read court speeches, documents, and philosophies from ancient Athens and Rome. We will examine the ways in which rhetoric and law converged, justice was administered, and where morality and law were connected and, remained distinct. We will, therefore, study how the ancients defined, developed, and exercised law within their own cultural beliefs; law as an idea, then, is as central to this course as the practices and procedures of the ancient court system. (Offered every four years)

CLAS 310 Sparta: Greece's Warrior Society When news of the battle of Thermopylae reached the rest of the Greek world the myth of the Warrior-Heroes of Greece was complete and over the next hundred years Sparta was a dominant culture within the Greek world. The Spartan culture has attracted many people to its study, both ancient and modern, but due to the reticent nature of the Spartans most of our understanding of their culture comes from outside their city-state. A history of Sparta, then, is as much an account of the rise and fall of the Spartan society as it is an examination of the mythic representation of this city-state by other Greeks and later writers. Dedicated classroom participation and preparation will be assumed as we explore the mirage and realities of this unique and powerful society. (Offered every three years)

CLAS 320 Jesus to Constantine This course examines the history of the early Christian Church from its beginnings to the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.  (Offered every four years)

CLAS 330 Greek Archaeology This course will provide a basic background in Greek (or rather, Aegean Basin) archaeology, ranging from the Stone Age to the death of Alexander the Great (in 323 BCE).  Students will be introduced those sites, artifacts and concepts that are representative of their eras or styles, as well as those to which a beginning student of Greek archaeology ought to be exposed.  Further, whenever possible, students will examine some of the field's more famous controversies.  Other questions to consider are as follows:  How much can we really know about any culture from its artifacts?  How much do our own biases affect our interpretations?  Is archaeology 'looting'?  Who can 'legitimately' claim to 'possess' an artifact? (Offered every four years)

CLAS 450 Independent Study (byarrangement)

CLAS 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study (by arrangement)

CLAS 495 Honors (by arrangement)

Classics Courses Offered Occasionally
CLAS 175 Special Topics
CLAS 221 Rise of the Polis
CLAS 275 Special Topics
CLAS 283 Aristotle

GREEK COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
GRE 101 Elementary Ancient Greek There is one criterion, and one only, by which a course for the learners of a language no longer spoken should be judged: the efficiency and speed with which it brings them to the stage of reading texts in the original language with precision, understanding, and enjoyment. This statement by Sir Kenneth Dover characterizes the approach to learning Greek pursued in the beginning sequence (GRE 101, GRE 102). The aim of this sequence is to provide students with the vocabulary and grammatical skills necessary to read ancient Greek authors as quickly as possible. This language study also offers an interesting and effective approach to the culture and thought of the Greeks. No prerequisites. (Fall, offered annually)

GRE 102 Beginning Greek II A continuation of GRE 101, this course continues and completes the presentation of basic Greek grammar and vocabulary and increases students facility in reading Greek. Prerequisite: GRE 101 or the equivalent. (Spring, offered annually)

GRE 205 The Greek New Testament In this course, students read one of the canonical gospels in the original Greek and the other three in English translation. Class work emphasizes the grammatical differences between koine Greek and Classical Greek. The course considers the numerous non-canonical gospels and investigates the formation of the New Testament canon. Students examine textual variants in the biblical manuscripts and discuss the principles that lead textual critics to prefer one reading over another. The theory that Matthew and Luke are based on Mark and a hypothetical document Q is critically investigated. The course also introduces students to modern approaches to New Testament study: form, redaction, rhetorical, and postmodern criticisms. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

GRE 213 Plato In this course, a Platonic dialogue such as the Symposium, the Apology, or the Crito is read in Greek, with attention directed to the character and philosophy of Socrates as they are represented by Plato. It includes a review of Greek grammar. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

GRE 223 Homer This course is a reading in Greek and discussion of some of either Homer's Iliad or Odyssey, with the entire poem read in English. Some attention is given to the cultural and historical setting and to the nature of Homeric language, but the course aims at an appreciation, through readings in the original, of the Iliad or Odyssey as a poetic masterpiece. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

GRE 250 Ancient Greek Historians In this course, students read selections from Herodotus, Xenophon, or Thucydides, examining both the authors' prose styles and the historical contexts in which they wrote. The course aims to develop the ability to read the original Greek text of an ancient historian with attention given to vocabulary, grammar and style. In addition, students will also examine the ways in which Greek historians recorded their history in a way that was both aesthetically pleasing and useful.

GRE 263 Sophocles This course includes a careful reading in Greek of one of the plays of Sophocles, such as Oedipus the King or Antigone, with close attention to the language of tragedy, as well as to plot construction, dramatic technique, and the issues raised by the mythic story. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

GRE 264 Euripides In this course, a complete tragedy of Euripides, such as Alcestis, Bacchae, Hippolytus, or Medea, is studied in Greek, with close attention to language and style as a way of appreciating the play’s broader concerns and Euripides' dramatic artistry. Prerequisite: GRE 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

GRE 301 Advanced Readings I This course is offered to students who have mastered the fundamentals of Greek and are now able to read substantial amounts appreciatively. Readings are chosen according to the interests and needs of the students. Prerequisites: two semesters of 200 level Greek or permission of the instructor. (Fall, offered annually)

GRE 302 Advanced Readings II This course is parallel to GRE 301. (Spring, offered annually)

GRE 450 Independent Study (byarrangement)

GRE 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study (by arrangement)

GRE 495 Honors (by arrangement)

LATIN COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
LAT 101 Beginning Latin I This course is an introduction to the fundamentals of Latin grammar, accompanied by some practice in reading the language. The aim is to equip students to read the major Roman authors. No prerequisite. (Fall, offered annually)

LAT 102 Beginning Latin II This course continues and completes the study of basic grammar and introduces representative samples of Latin prose (e.g., Cicero, Caesar) and poetry (e.g., Catullus, Ovid). By consolidating their knowledge of grammar and building their vocabulary, students are able to read Latin with increased ease and pleasure and to deepen their understanding of ancient Roman culture. Prerequisite: LAT 101 or the equivalent. (Spring, offered annually)

LAT 223 Medieval Latin At the end of the Roman Empire, as "classical" Latin grew more formal and artificial, vulgar Latin, the language of the "common people" and the parent of the Romance languages, emerged as a sophisticated literary instrument. Throughout the Middle Ages, an enormous literature was produced in this living Latin: works sacred and profane, serious and flippant. In this course, students read selections, in the original Latin, from works in theology, history, biography, fiction, and poetry. Attention is given to the differences between Medieval and "classical" Latin, but the course emphasizes the creativity of the medieval authors as artists in a living language. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 238 Latin Epic (Vergil Or Ovid) This course is a careful reading in Latin of a significant portion of the Aeneid or the Metamorphoses, with the entire poem read in English, to enable students to appreciate the poetry and Vergil's or Ovid's presentation of Augustan Rome against the background of its historical and literary heritage. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 248 Cicero and Pliny This course includes readings in the original Latin of works by eyewitnesses to the profound changes that Rome experienced during the late republic and early empire. It gives considerable attention to the literary intentions of the author and to the light those intentions throw on contemporary political feelings and postures. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 255 Latin Historian: Tacitus or Livy This course includes readings from Tacitus, Annales, or Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, examining the authors' prose styles and the historical contexts in which they wrote. Students explore the authors' use of historiography as ostensible support or covert attack on political regimes. Attention is given to the ancient view that history must be aesthetically pleasing and ethically useful and to ancient historians' lapses in objectivity and accuracy. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 262 Latin Love Poetry In this course, selections from Catullus, Propertius, Sulpicia, Tibullus, and Ovid help to survey the language, themes, and structures of Augustan elegiac poetry. Considerable attention is paid to the Roman authors' views of women and of the relations between the sexes. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 264 Petronius or Seneca In this course, selections from the Satyricon, read in Latin, highlight Petronius' wit, his depiction of contemporary society, and the Satyricon as an example of ancient prose narrative. Alternatively, selections from Seneca's Moral Epistles portray the Stoic philosopher's ethical concerns in a time of tyranny, and one of his blood-and-thunder tragedies illustrates the spirit of the age of Nero, in which evil becomes a fine art. Prerequisite: LAT 102 or the equivalent. (Offered every three years)

LAT 301 Advanced Readings I This course is offered to students who have mastered the fundamentals of Latin and are now able to read substantial amounts appreciatively. Readings are chosen according to the interests and needs of the students. Possibilities include: prose of Cicero, Seneca, Tacitus, Livy; poetry of Horace, Juvenal, Lucretius, Ovid, Propertius, Vergil. Prerequisites: Two terms of 200 level Latin or permission of the instructor. (Fall, offered annually)

LAT 302 Advanced Readings II This course is parallel to LAT 301. (Spring, offered annually)

LAT 450 Independent Study (byarrangement)

LAT 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study (by arrangement)

LAT 495 Honors (by arrangement)

Preparing Students to Lead Lives of Consequence.