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2014-2016 COURSE CATALOGUE : FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE STUDIES

French is one of the most important European languages. It is spoken on five continents, and is one of the two official languages of the European Union, the second language of the United Nations, an official language of many African countries, and one of the national languages of Canada. French is also enjoying a renaissance in Francophone areas of the United States. The French and Francophone Studies Department offers an integrated curriculum with courses in language, culture, and literature that reflect the rich diversity of the French and Francophone culture throughout the world.

Most departmental courses are taught in French (FRE), and some courses in English (FRNE). Students in the French and Francophone Studies Department are strongly advised to study abroad in the programs sponsored by the Department:  Rennes or Aix-en-Provence in France (every semester), Québec, Canada (every semester), or Senegal (alternate years). Students going to a departmental program must be enrolled in a FRE class the semester prior to their departure. Students in these programs will receive up to four departmental credits for courses taken abroad. These credits can be applied toward a major or a minor in French and Francophone Studies. They may also receive credit toward majors and minors for other departments and programs, if arrangements have been made prior to departure abroad. All arrangements for off campus programs are made through the Center for Global Education.

The French and Francophone Studies faculty teach across the curriculum and participate in programs with cross-listed courses in Africana Studies, American Studies, Comparative Literature, European Studies, International Relations, Media and Society, Middle Eastern Studies, Peace Studies and Women’s Studies. The department faculty also teach First-Year Seminars, and collaborate with their colleagues from other departments in multidisciplinary courses.

The French and Francophone Studies program offers a disciplinary major and a disciplinary minor, an interdisciplinary major and two interdisciplinary minors. The disciplinary major and minor consist entirely of courses from the department. The interdisciplinary minor “Concentration in French” is designed for students enrolled in language classes at any level and is articulated around a semester abroad with one of our departmental programs.

The interdisciplinary Francophone Studies major and minor will interest students majoring in such fields as Africana Studies, Anthropology, Studio Art, Art History, Economics, Environmental Studies, European Studies, History, International Relations, Media and Society, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology and Women’s Studies.

All courses taken in the French and Francophone Studies department count for our majors and minors. French and Francophone Studies courses taken abroad all count in the department program and up to two of these courses may substitute for core courses in the major and minor, as is appropriate.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DISCIPLINARY FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE STUDIES MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 10 courses
All French courses numbered 226 or above count toward the major. No more than one French/Francophone literature or culture course taken in English may count toward the major. Courses must include: Two FRE 240-level courses (or equivalent); two FRE 250-level courses before the senior year; two FRE 300-level courses, one in the senior year; and three additional French or Francophone language, culture, or literature courses selected in consultation with the adviser. The disciplinary French and Francophone Studies major includes two possible tracks. Upon declaring a disciplinary French and Francophone Studies major, the students may select an area of concentration. During the course of their studies, students prepare a portfolio to be formally presented in the spring semester of their senior year. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRADITIONS FRANÇAISES TRACK FOR THE MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 10 courses
FRE 241, FRE 244, FRE 251, and FRE 252, before the senior year; one Francophone course at the 200- or 300-level; two FRE 300-level French literature courses taught in French, one in the senior year; and three additional FRE electives selected in consultation with the adviser. No more than one French/Francophone literature and culture course taken in English may count toward the major. French majors pursuing this track are strongly encouraged to pursue off campus study in France. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PARCOURS MUTICULTURELS TRACK FOR THE MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 10 courses
FRE 242, FRE 243, FRE 251 or FRE 252, and FRE 253, before the senior year; one French 200- or 300-level course; two departmental 300-level Francophone courses, one in the senior year; and three French and Francophone electives, selected in consultation with the adviser. No more than one French/Francophone literature and culture course taken in English may count toward the major. French majors pursuing this track are strongly encouraged to pursue off-campus study in Senegal. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE STUDIES INTERDISCIPLINARY MAJOR (B.A.)
interdisciplinary, 14 courses
The sequence of courses consists of 1) eight departmental courses including two FRE 240-level courses; two FRE 250-level courses to be taken before the senior year; two FRE 300-level courses, and two French and Francophone electives selected in consultation with the adviser, and 2) six courses from other disciplines chosen in consultation with the adviser. No more than one French/Francophone literature and culture course taken in English may count toward the major. Upon declaring an interdisciplinary French and Francophone Studies major, the students may select an area of concentration. During the course of their studies, students prepare a portfolio to be formally presented in the spring semester of their senior year. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE STUDIES DISCIPLINARY MINOR
disciplinary, 6 courses
One FRE 240-level course; one Francophone course at the 200- or 300-level; and one 200- or 300-level French course. At least one of the FRE 200-level courses must be a FRE 250-level course taken before the senior year. Three additional FRE courses in consultation with the adviser. No more than one French/Francophone culture or literature course taught in English may count toward the minor. A semester abroad in one of the department programs is strongly recommended. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the minor.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION IN FRENCH INTERDISCIPLINARY MINOR
interdisciplinary, 6 courses
This minor combines a semester abroad with courses taken before and after that semester in an uninterrupted sequence. Requirements include one or two courses in French preceding the semester abroad, a semester abroad and four courses in any of the department programs abroad, and one or two courses upon returning from abroad. The minor may begin at any level of language acquisition, including the 100- level. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the minor.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE STUDIES INTERDISCIPLINARY MINOR
interdisciplinary, 6 courses
Six courses selected in consultation with the adviser. These courses will include one course at the French 240-level, one course at the French 250-level, the latter to be taken before the senior year; two courses in other disciplines approved by the adviser; and two additional FRE courses approved by the adviser. A semester abroad in one of the department programs is strongly recommended. All courses must be passed with a grade of C or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the minor.

COURSES IN FRENCH
Language Acquisition
Level I: Fundamentals Language Skills
FRE 101 Beginning French I
FRE 102 Beginning French II
Level II: Intermediate Language Skills
FRE 120 Intermediate French I
FRE 130 Intermediate French II
Level III: Advanced Language Skills
FRE 226 French in Review I: Parler et comprendre
FRE 227 French in Review II: Lire et écrire

Culture and Literature
Level IV: Introduction to Culture and Literature
FRE 230 Senegal: An Orientation
FRE 241 Prises de Vues: Introduction to Contemporary France
FRE 242 Introduction to Québec Studies
FRE 243 Introduction to Francophone Cultures
FRE 244 Le Midi de la France
FRE 251 Introduction to Literature I: Mystics, Friends, and Lovers
FRE 252 Introduction to Literature II: Que sais-je?
FRE 253 Introduction to Literature III: Paris-Outre-mer
Level V: Advanced Culture and Literature
FRE 351 Francophone African Fiction
FRE 352 North African Literature: Narrative of Dissent and the Search for Identity
FRE 355 Francophone Caribbean Literatures
FRE 364 Voix Lyriques: From Baudelaire to Surrealism
FRE 380 Images de Femmes
FRE 382 French Theater
FRE 383 Topics in Middle Ages and Renaissance
FRE 384 Topics in 17th and 18th Centuries
FRE 385 Topics in 19th to 21st Centuries

COURSES IN ENGLISH
FRNE 111 Them and Us: Diversity in Modern France
FRNE 155 Exile and Identity in Francophone Caribbean Fiction
FRNE 211 Black African Literature: The Quest for Identity
FRNE 215 Existentialist Journeys
FRNE 218 Memory, Culture and Identity in French Caribbean Literatures
FRNE 219 Beyond Colonialism: North African Cinema and Literatures
FRNE 255 Modern French Theater
FRNE 341 Boulevard Saint-Germain: Beauvoir, Sartre, and Camus
FRNE 395 Race, Society and Culture in the Ancien Régime

EXAMPLES OF CROSSLISTED COURSES (Interdisciplinary major and minor)
French and Francophone Studies are relevant across all disciplines taught at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Crosslisted courses offering vary yearly depending on the current schedule. They may come from any department or program. The courses listed below are given as examples. This is not an exhaustive list. Consultation with French and Francophone Studies adviser is necessary to determine if a course from another department or program can be applied to the departmental interdisciplinary major and minor.

AFS 180 The Black Atlantic: Cultures across an Ocean
ANTH 115 Language and Culture
ANTH 296 African Cultures
ARTH 218 Age of Chivalry
ARTH 334 Manet and the Modernist Project
ARTH 232 Rococo Art and Architecture
ARTH 240 European Painting in the 19th Century
ARTH 255 French Roots of Modernism
ARTH 389 Rococo to Revolution: Painting in France 1760-1800
BIDS 206 Multiculturalism in Canada
BIDS 213 The French Medieval Connection
BIDS 291 Medieval Art and Literature
BIDS 298 The Ballets Russes: Modernism and the Arts
DAN 210 Dance History I
ECON 233 Comparative Economics
ENG 228 Medieval Comparative Literature
ENG 302 Post-structuralist Literary Theory
ENG 317 Heart of Darkness
ENV 120 Sustainable Geography and Global Economy
HIST 101 Foundations of European History
HIST 103 Early Modern Europe
HIST 223 Modern France
HIST 237 Europe since the War
HIST 325 Medicine and Public Health in Modern Europe
HIST 250 Medieval Popular Culture
HIST 253 Renaissance and Reformation
HIST 301 The Enlightenment
LTAM 222 Caribbean Literature and Politics
MUS 202 Medieval and renaissance (600-1600)
MUS 203 Baroque and Classical Music (1600-1800)
MUS 204 Romantic and Modern (1800-1950)
PHIL 220 Semiotics
PHIL 230 Aesthetics
PHIL 372 Early Modern Philosophy
POL 140 Introduction to Comparative World Politics
POL 180 Introduction to International Relations
POL 208 Gender and Politics in the Middle East and North Africa
POL 245 Politics of the New Europe
POL 249 Protest Politics in Comparative Perspective
POL 258 Comparative Politics of the Middle East
POL 259 African Politics
POL 297 Europe and America
REL 257 What’s Love Got to Do with It?
REL 313 Religious Language
REL 318 Postcolonial Theologies
REL 236 Gender and Islam Westernization
REL 271 The History and Impact of the Holocaust
SOC 233 Women in the Third World
SOC 299 The Sociology of Vietnam: Conflict, Colonialism, and catharsis
WMST 100 Introduction to Women’s Studies
WMST 300 Feminist Theory

COURSES TAUGHT IN ENGLISH (FRNE)
FRNE 111 Them and Us: Diversity in Modern France This course is an introduction to the problematic of the Other in contemporary France. The principles on which this civil society is organized are analyzed, particularly those based on the 1789 Declaration of the rights of men. The course seeks to analyze what becomes of these principles today in the face of growing resentment against immigration and a crisis of national identity. The course begins with a short introduction to the 1789 revolution, which established the basic principles of the modern French state. Reflections on the French colonial experience in Algeria and its legacy in contemporary France serve as an introduction to the immigration question today. Typical readings: Ben Jelloun, Cardinal, Cohen, Charref, Memmi, Sebbar. (Gallouët, Koffi-Tessio, offered occasionally)

FRNE 155 Exile and Identity in Francophone Caribbean Fiction This course serves as introduction to the study of the French Caribbean literatures, from tradition to modernity. It explores the interface between exile and identity, and examines how gender, memory, and race, class and ethnicity, language and violence inform the works of French Caribbean writers. It will also discuss literary and historical relations of French Caribbean authors with Black writers of the Harlem Renaissance movement. Typical readings: Césaire, Zobel, Depestre, Glissant, Condé, Danticat, Kesteloot, Freire, Fabre, Jules-Rosette, Wright, Baldwin. (Dahouda, offered occasionally).

FRNE 211 Black African Literature: The Quest for Identity An introduction to both oral and written forms of expressions from Black Africa. This course considers how writers and bards seek to create an identity for their societies and themselves in face of pressures not only from foreign cultures, but also from within their own societies. Typical readings: Sundiata, Wolof oral poetry, Camara Laye, Ousmane Sembène, Chinua Achebe, Ngugi, Emechetta, Gordimer. (Koffi-Tessio, offered occasionally)

FRNE 215 Existentialist Journeys Modern Francophone African films and fictions, inspired by existentialist literature of political commitment, portray individuals in quest for identity, but the endpoint of their journeys remains elusive and problematic as they wrestle with the alienating effects of colonialism and post-colonialism. Do Francophone African writers and filmmakers renew European forms of the novel and film? What remains for Existentialist writers to learn from such journeys? Are existentialist portrayals of Africans truly free of the very racist and Eurocentric stereotypes that the existentialists themselves decry? (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRNE 218 Memory, Culture and Identity in French Caribbean Literatures This course offers students windows into Francophone Caribbean culture and society as a literary construction. We analyze the dynamic of identity and memory through a study of Caribbean literary movements, from the colonial period to the post-colonial time. Topics include violence and exile and identity; the search for Africa and metaphors of origin; gender, race, memory, and the practice of Diaspora. Typical readings: Césaire, Damas, Fanon, Condé, Ollivier, Zobel, Danticat. (Dahouda, offered occasionally)

FRNE 219 Beyond Colonialism: North African Cinema and Literature Between North and South, Mediterranean and continental Africa, with a rich 2,000-year history, Francophone North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia), faces many challenges: national, tribal, linguistic, gender and personal identities, the various faces of Islam, tradition and modernity. Students are introduced to the North African Maghreb, its cultural landscape, its history, and its people, through various cultural productions. These will include contemporary North African cinema, with particular emphasis on Tunisian films by women, fiction by Algerian and Moroccan authors such as Djebar, Bey, Kadra, Chraïbi, Ben Jelloun, among others. Prerequisite: open to all, but recommended for sophomores and beyond. This course is cross-listed with Africana Studies, Media and Society, Middle Eastern Studies, and Peace Studies; it should be of interest to students of Comparative Literature, History, International Relations, and Political Science. (Gallouët, offered alternate years)

FRNE 255 Modern French Theater This course introduces students to Modern French Theatre and to the new dramatic forms that appear in the course of the 20th century. The focus is on the revolution that takes place in the performing and visual arts and gives birth to Modern French Theatre. Students learn to analyze the dramatic text and the performance onstage and investigate the relationships between culture, society and theatre. Typical readings: Ionesco, Beckett, Genet, Anouilh, Sartre. (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRNE 285 The Troubadours: Songs of Love, War , and Redemption in Medieval Southern France This course introduces students to the texts, music, and culture of the troubadours of medieval Southern France-and their legacy as the inventors of love poetry in the vernacular. Performing their songs in the most powerful and vibrant cultural centers of medieval France. The Troubadours sang the praises of their beloved, incited kings to war, accused the decadence and corruption of the ruling classes, and made the vernacular an accepted medium for religious expression. But who were the troubadours? In this class, students are introduced to the language, history, religion, geography, and culture of these poets. Through the study of printed texts, CD recordings, digital images of medieval manuscripts, and artistic representations, students will learn about the origins of the troubadours? In this class, students are introduced to the language, history, religion , geography, and culture of these poets. Through the study of printed texts, CD recordings, digital images of medieval manuscripts, and artistic representations, students will learn about the origins of the troubadour lyric as live musical performance, its later transformation into written text, and the troubadours' impact on other cultures and literary traditions. Readings (and CD/MP3 recordings) : the troubadours, some texts of the Northern French trouvères, and occasional relevant readings in literature of other periods and traditions.

FRNE 341 Boulevard Saint-Germain: Beauvoir, Sartre and Camus The Western imagination of the 20th century has evolved in response to, and in spite of, the major traumas of two world wars and their aftermath. This course examines how the particular conceptions of the universe, deriving from the stark realities of a war-torn continent, were formulated in the writing of de Beauvoir, Sartre and Camus, the three voices that resonated with the deepest chords of a wounded nation, continent, world. (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRNE 395 Race, Society and Culture of the Ancien Régime The goal of the course is to become familiarized with various cultural productions of 18th century pre-revolutionary France, to acquire understanding how the representation of race evolved in a cultural context reflecting society’s political and economical agendas, and to appreciate the impact of race representation on society. Special attention is given to the construction of race in visual representations from travel narratives, illustrations, and paintings, as well as textual representations in fiction and in the writings of the Philosophes. This course is cross-listed with Africana Studies, Media and Society and Peace Studies; it should be of interest to students of Art, Comparative Literature, History, International Relations, and Political Science. Prerequisite: open to all, but recommended for sophomores and beyond. (Gallouët, offered alternate years)

COURSES TAUGHT IN FRENCH (FRE)
FRE 101 Beginning French I For students with no French experience, or placement. This is an immersion course that teaches speaking, listening, reading, writing, and French body language through a creative combination of interactive materials that introduce students to French culture as well as language. This course uses French as the principal language of instruction in the classroom. Students will work weekly in an integrative way with interactive materials online such as online exercises, movies, music and cultural readings. It is open only to students with no prior experience and students who have placed in FRE 101 or students who have permission of the instructor. Offered every semester)

FRE 102 Beginning French II For students who had French I in 12th grade, or placement. This course is a continuation of FRE 101. Students will work weekly in an integrative way with interactive materials online such as online exercises, movies, music and cultural readings. This course uses French as the principal language of instruction in the classroom. First-year students are placed according to placement exam results.  Prerequisites: FRE 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (Offered every semester)

FRE 120 Intermediate French I For students who had FRE III in 11th grade or FRE II in 12th grade, or placement. This course offers qualified students the opportunity to review all the fundamentals of the French language (speaking, listening, writing, and reading). The course will also explore French and Francophone culture, art and literature through short readings. Students will work weekly in an integrated way with interactive materials online such as online exercises, movies, music and cultural readings. First-year students are placed according to placement exam results. This course uses French as the principal language of instruction in the classroom. Prerequisite: FRE 101 and 102 or equivalent. (Offered every semester)

FRE 130 Intermediate French II For students who had FRE IV in 11th grade or FRE III in 12th grade, or placement. This course offers qualified students the opportunity to reinforce all the fundamentals of the French language. FRE 130 is the fourth-semester French language and culture course at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. In this course, we study the French language within the context of French and Francophone (French-speaking countries other than France) culture and literature. The goal of French 130 is to continue the study of modern French and Francophone culture through an immersion in its language and its literature. Therefore, all classes will be conducted in French. Over the course of the semester, students will work to fine-tune their proficiency in the four fundamental language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Students will work in an integrative way with interactive materials online such as online exercises, movies, music and cultural readings. First-year students are placed according to placement exam results. This course uses French as the principal language of instruction in the classroom. Prerequisite: FRE 120 or placement, or permission of the instructor. (Offered every semester)

FRE 225 Parlons Français This course is designed as an intensive training in oral expression for semi-advanced and advanced students. The course focuses on the practice of speaking and aims to help students develop and broaden pertinent vocabulary, as well as conversational or idiomatic expressions used in everyday life by French speakers. Students will gain greater fluidity and confidence and improve their oral communication skills by exploring contemporary issues in films and the media and reading and discussing short stories, plays, and articles from French and Francophone magazines and newspapers. Thus placing an emphasis on dialogue and discussion, this course will prepare students linguistically for 240--level French topics courses through a wide variety of challenging conversational activities, including oral presentations, discussions of current events, and in-class readings of plays. This course aims to help students understand how to use the French language in varied communicative contexts and gain a deeper understanding of French and Francophone cultures.

FRE 226 French in Review I: Parler et Comprendre For students who had FRE IV in 12th grade, or placement. This course offers a complete grammar review while emphasizing aural and speaking skills to prepare students for advanced courses. All grammatical concepts are reviewed to form a firm foundation for all advanced French classes. First-year students are placed according to placement exam results. The course uses French as the principal language of instruction in the classroom, includes mandatory recitations every week. Prerequisite: FRE 130 or placement or the equivalent. (Offered every semester)

FRE 227 French in Review II: Lire et écrire For students who had FRE V (or more) in 12th grade, or placement. This is an advanced language course in which students learn nuances of French grammar and stylistics through reading and various writing exercises. This course emphasizes the skills of reading and writing. The course guides the students through cultural and literary texts of increasing difficulty and helps them develop strategies for reading texts in French. These strategies will lead to understanding of vocabulary through the use of lexical resources (dictionaries and web materials), understanding of grammatical syntax, and ability to identify writing strategies in written texts using stylistic analysis. First-year students are placed according to placement exam results. Prerequisite: FRE 226 or placement or permission of instructor. (Offered every semester)

FRE 230 Sénégal: An Orientation This course provides an introduction to the people, land, and culture of Sénégal for qualified students interested in this country. It is required of all students going to the Sénégal program. It includes an introduction to Senegalese history, religion, economics, manners and customs, food, sports, geography, and society. Materials for the class include readings and visual documents. The course may include a field trip to “Little Senegal” in New York City. Prerequisite: FRE 227, or concurrently with FRE 227 (Koffi-Tessio, offered alternate falls)

FRE 241 Prises de vues: Introduction to Contemporary France This course seeks to analyze contemporary French culture through its representation in films and the media. Major trends examined include youth, education, immigration, women in society, and the political system. Students pursue a research topic of their choice and submit a portfolio at the end of the semester. The course includes a required film screening every Tuesday night. Students improve their language skills through readings, discussions, written weekly film reviews, and reflection papers and oral presentations on relevant topics. This course is highly recommended for students planning a term in France. This course is cross-listed with Media and Society. Prerequisites: FRE 227, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with FRE 227. Typical readings: Edminston, La France contemporaine, and weekly films such as Kassowitz’s La Haine, Chatiliez’s La vie est un long fleuve tranquille, Jeunet’s Le fabuleux destin d’Amélie Poulain, Cantet’s Entre les murs and Kechiche’s La graine et le mulet. (Gallouët, offered alternate years)

FRE 242 Introduction to Québec Studies This course seeks to examine various aspects of the French Canadian culture of the Province of Quebec in its social, literary, and ideological expressions, as well as in its political and historical contexts. It offers students an understanding of contemporary issues, such as colonialism, post-modernity, the Quiet Revolution, language and politics, feminist movements, the dynamics of identity, immigration, and the new nationalism. Students will also consider Quebec’s relations with France and the USA in the context of globalization. While exploring a new socio-cultural space, students will improve their French language skills through readings, discussions, film reviews, and papers on relevant topics. Prerequisite: FRE 227 or permission of the instructor or concurrently with FRE 227 Typical readings: Lacombe, Roy, Miron, Gagnon, Ollivier, Vallières, Nepveu, Bouchard. (Dahouda, offered alternate years)

FRE 243 Introduction to Francophone Cultures This course seeks to introduce the variations of French and the variety of cultures in the Francophone to the world. Students are introduced to the concept of francophonie, its ideological and political meaning as well as its cultural and literary expressions. Students discover the unity and the diversity of French speaking countries. They explore contemporary issues in these countries, and discuss the relations of the Francophone world with France and the U.S. in the context of globalization. The goal of this course is not simply to acquaint students with issues and realities around the Francophone world, but to provide them with a broader cultural and intercultural perspective. Students improve their French through readings, discussions, weekly film reviews, and papers on relevant topics. Prerequisite: FRE 227 or permission of the instructor or concurrently with FRE 227. Typical readings: selections from journal articles, newspapers, books and web materials dealing with current events related themes examined in class. (Dahouda, offered alternate years)

FRE 244 Le Midi de la France In this course, we concentrate on the South of France. The historian Fernand Braudel writes that “France is diversity... it is not only an appearance, a way of speaking, but a concrete reality, the triumph of plurality, heterogeneity, of something never really seen elsewhere...of something always different...” Similarly throughout its history, the South has been shaped by a constant flux of immigrants. Its luminous landscape reflects this diversity from rugged and dry terrains, mountains and the Mediterranean coast. It has been the site of many political and religious upheavals, which are embedded in its cities and landscapes. It is difficult to look at the South without “seeing” its history unfold. Since medieval times, poets, writers and artists have been inspired by its landscapes. We will look at the history, language, literature, and arts of the South by following different itineraries marked by cities such as Marseille, Montpellier, Toulouse, Aix-en-Provence. We will study its rich folklore and traditions, and taste its fragrant cuisine. Prerequisites: FRE 227 or permission of the instructor or concurrently with FRE 227. Typical readings: History of Provence, Troubadours, Mistral, Giono, Pagnol, Films: La Gloire de mon pere, Jean de Florette, (Wells, offered alternate years)

FRE 251 Introduction to Literature I: Mystics, Friends and Lovers The conventions governing erotic love and passion in Europe were first formulated by the troubadours in Southern France. This course traces the evolution of passionate love from the Middle Ages to the Present, and analyzes its connections with mystical love. We will also study other traditions of love such as marital love and friendship. Prerequisite: Any two  240 level courses, or permission of the instructor, or any 240 level with another 240 level taken concurrently. Typical readings: the Troubadours, Chrétien de Troyes, Pléïade poets,  Racine, Madame de Lafayette, les poètes maudits, Amin Maalouf (Wells, offered alternate years)

FRE 252 Introduction to Literature II: ‘Que sais je?’ This course is an introduction to literary discourse and a study of essays by significant authors who have shaped French thought from the Renaissance to the present. The question  ‘Que sais je?’ is an epistemological question, that is, a question about knowledge. What we know, or think we know, shapes our vision of the world, and who we are. The subject determines the object of knowledge. We pay particular attention to the subject, the “je” of the question. We consider the subject’s position before the unknown, and the other. Our journey, beginning with Montaigne’s question about identity will lead naturally to analysis of contemporary Western attitude toward others. Prerequisite: Any two 240 level courses, or permission of the instructor, or any 240 level with another 240 level taken concurrently. Typical readings: selections from Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, Camus, de Beauvoir, Kristeva, Maalouf (Gallouët, offered alternate years)  

FRE 253 Introduction to Literature III: Paris Outre-mer Depending on the instructor, this course follows various trajectories between Paris and Francophone countries and regions around the world. Students listen to voices in French from outside France. Paris is considered a starting point, rather than the center of Francophone cultures. Special attention is given to the ambiguous love-hate relations between France and other Francophone countries. This course teaches explication de texte, the French approach to reading literary and other cultural texts. Prerequisite: Any two  240 level or permission of the instructor, or any 240 level with another  240 level taken concurrently. Typical readings: selections from Camus, Césaire, Djebar, Pham Duy Khiem, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Duras, Senghor, Kourouma, (Koffi-Tessio, offered alternate years)

FRE 351 Francophone African Fictions A study of the origins of Francophone African fiction in both French European and African traditions. It includes fragmentation of traditional models of identity in both men and women and the call for both master and slave to embrace a new freedom. Prerequisite: FRE 253 and one of  FRE 251 or FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another  250 level. Typical readings: Soundjata, Diop, Kourouma, Laye, Sembene, Bâ. (Koffi-Tessio, offered regularly)

FRE 352 North African Literature: Narratives of Dissent and the Search for Identity This course introduces narrative fiction from North Africa written in French. Students study the rise of Francophone narratives against colonialism and analyze their development into the national literatures of Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria. Paying particular attention to issues of gender, language, and religion, students analyze how these narratives of dissent evolve into fiction constructing individual and national identities. Prerequisite: FRE 253 and one of FRE 251 or FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. Typical readings: Fanon, Jelloun, Chraibi, Djebar, Mimouni, Yacine, Bey, Khadra. (Gallouët, offered regularly)

FRE 355 Francophone Caribbean Identities This course deals with ways in which Francophone Caribbean writers represent their society in a context of deep alienations, and how they try to reinvent themselves and their community through the diversity of their unique culture and humanity. Students improve their cultural and language skills by discussing these major topics: memory, diaspora, and the quest for identity; race, gender and assimilation; language, aesthetics, and ideology. Prerequisite: FRE 253 and one of FRE 251 or FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. Typical readings: Césaire, Fanon, Dépestre, Zobel, Condé, Danticat; Glissant, Schwartz-Bart, Chamoiseau. (Dahouda, offered regularly)

FRE 364 Voix Lyriques In this course, students participate in the metamorphoses of the world through in depth analysis of poems. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. Typical readings: Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Valéry, Breton, Eluard, Appolinaire. (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRE 380 Images de Femmes Mother or lover, sorceress or goddess, redeemer or temptress—she often is a path toward the divine and often brings total destruction. This course studies recurrent literary images of the feminine and explores the mythical and mystical dimensions of these images. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with a 250 level. Typical readings: La Cité des dames, Les Illustres françaises, Marivaux, Romantic poets, George Sand, Baudelaire (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRE 382 Advanced Topics in French Literature: French Theater In this course, students read and analyze plays from Molière to the present time. A play must be spoken, heard, and visualized—so an important part of the course is devoted to the creative interpretation of selected scenes that are presented on stage toward the end of the term. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with a 250 level. Typical readings: Molière, Marivaux, Hugo, Sartre, Beckett, Racine. (Staff, offered occasionally)

FRE 383 Topics in Middle Ages and Renaissance Topics include Medieval epic and romance, Medieval and Renaissance lyric poetry, Montaigne, Rabelais, the Pléïade poets, Women in the French Renaissance. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. (Wells, offered regularly)

FRE 384 Topics in XVIIth and XVIIIth Century Topics include From d’Artagnan to the Sun King: Power and Culture in the XVIIth century; Narrative fiction; Epistolary Narratives; Representations of the Other in the Ancien Régime; The French Enlightenment and Diderot’s Encyclopédie, Marivaux. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. (Gallouët, offered regularly)

FRE 385 Topics in XIXth to XXIst Centuries Topics might include an analysis of gender, class and race in short stories, and novels by Stendahl, Flaubert, Zola, women’s writings of the XXth century, as well as a study of poets such as Nerval, Claudel, Bonnefoy and Saint-John Perse and Victor Segalen. Prerequisites: FRE 251 and FRE 252, or permission of the instructor, or concurrently with another 250 level. (Koffi-Tessio, offered regularly)

FRE 450 Independent Study

FRE 495 Honors