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COURSE CATALOGUE : EDUCATION

The Education Department at Hobart and William Smith Colleges has two missions. One is to provide courses of study in education. The other is to offer programs that lead to New York State certification as teachers of most subjects in public primary and secondary schools.

The Education Department offers a disciplinary major, disciplinary and interdisciplinary minors, an undergraduate program leading to teacher certification, and a fifth-year graduate program that extends the undergraduate program to a Master of Arts in Teaching degree.

THE MAJOR IN EDUCATIONAL STUDIES
Education happens in many places—in museums and national parks, in open air schools in developing countries, via campaigns for environmental sustainability, in family counseling clinics and youth centers, in public and private schools, in community colleges and universities, through services for citizens with disabilities, and in policy development caucuses, to name a few. Those who would work in any of these contexts need some common understandings, such as: the aims and possibilities of education; the variety of learners and their ways of learning; how knowledge, skills, and values are crafted into curricula; and the pedagogies that are presently available or might be invented.

The Colleges’ major in educational studies is intended to help students develop competence as students, researchers, and practitioners of education in a variety of settings. However, the major in educational studies cannot lead to certification to teach in public schools. Students interested in teacher certification are referred to the department’s Teacher Certification Programs that are detailed below.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR IN EDUCATIONAL STUDIES
disciplinary, 10 courses
At least 6 courses must be unique to the major. All courses for the major must be completed with a grade of C- or better, and no more than two may be taken CR/NC. At least four courses must be at the 300-level or higher. Up to 3 courses may be chosen from outside the Education Department, with permission of the adviser. The 10 courses will consist of: 1 foundations course; 1 diversity course; 4 concentration courses; 3 electives; and 1 capstone experience: EDUC 420, or an approved independent study, honors, or internship. The four concentration courses will support a particular focus or theme within the broad field of educational studies.

Representative Foundation Courses
EDUC 100 Perspectives on Education
EDUC 200 Philosophy of Education
EDUC 201 Schooling and Social Equality
EDUC 202 Human Growth and Development
(or others approved by adviser and chair)

Representative Diversity Courses
EDUC 203 Children with Disabilities
EDUC 230 Teaching English Language Learners
EDUC 330 Disability and Transition
EDUC 331 Rethinking Families
EDUC 332 Disability, Family, and Society
(or others approved by adviser and chair)

Students will identify a concentration with the approval of an adviser taking four courses to support a theme such as:

  • Inclusive education (providing services to people with disabilities)
  • Language and literacy (e.g., teaching English as a second or foreign language; writing or publishing children’s literature; producing curriculum materials, etc.)
  • Technology in education (e.g., designing and managing technology-based curriculum materials, developing assistive technology for people with disabilities; using technology to bring the world into classrooms; citizen science projects; multimedia-mediated teaching and learning; etc.)
  • Global education (acquainting people with places, cultures, and languages; preparing to teach overseas; supporting cultural-exchange programs; etc.)
  • Environmental education (including education, policy development, or advocacy for environmental conservation and sustainability)
  • Educational policy (via government agencies, foundations, and other advocacy groups concerned with issues that intersect education)
  • Education for development (with an international focus, for example, via Save the Children, International Rescue Committee, or foreign-aid agencies; etc.)
  • Child services (including social work, recreation work, community-based education, parent education, and any work that intersects with children and education)
  • Informal education (including in museums, as park naturalists, and any other public or private activity focused on education and/or outreach).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR IN EDUCATION
interdisciplinary, 6 courses
Six courses: at least two, but not more than three, in education. Courses in this minor must contribute to a theme grounded in education courses; courses outside education must be conceptually related to the education courses. At least four of the six courses must be at the 300-level or above. Only one independent study may be counted toward the minor. At least three courses must be unique to the minor. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or better.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR EDUCATION
disciplinary, 5 courses
Any five education courses with at least two courses at the 200-level, and at least two at the 300- or 400-level. Only one independent study may count toward the minor. SOC 261 Sociology of Education may substitute for one of the 200-level education courses; WRRH 322 Adolescent Literature, and AEP 335 Arts and Human Development may substitute for 300 or above education courses. At least three courses must be unique to the minor. Students majoring in arts and education may not minor in education. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or better.

UNDERGRADUATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS
The department offers programs leading to New York State initial certification in childhood education (grades 1-6), childhood and students with disabilities (1-6), visual arts (PreK-12), music (PreK-12), TESOL (PreK-12), and several disciplines in adolescent education (7-12). New York State certification is recognized in most other states.

In all HWS certification programs, students learn to teach by teaching, and devote the majority of their coursework to academic study outside of the department. Students in teacher certification programs may major in almost any discipline or program offered by the Colleges, with the proviso that those seeking adolescent certification, or certification to teach art or music, must major in the subject area in which they wish to be certified (e.g., mathematics, chemistry, art, English).

Students typically apply for admission to the undergraduate certification programs in the spring of their first year. Those admitted begin in their sophomore year. Students who are willing to complete student teaching during a ninth semester may apply as sophomores. Students who transfer into the Colleges are admitted on a rolling basis. Admission to the program is competitive and is based on good academic standing, demonstrated interest in teaching, and personal traits such as initiative, punctuality and responsibility.

All students admitted to a certification program are required to complete four semesters of fieldwork (education practica) in local classrooms. Students must spend at least 40 hours per semester working in a classroom in which they are placed by the department. Tutors (sophomores) are expected to observe their cooperating teachers, work with individuals and small groups, and occasionally teach a whole class. Assistant teachers (juniors) take on increased responsibilities and regularly teach whole classes. Students are supervised as they teach and are offered personal guidance and encouragement to develop their own best teaching styles. In addition, all students must complete at least six teacher seminars that run concurrently with the fieldwork. Teacher seminars generally meet once a week and address issues of pedagogy. Tutoring, assistant teaching, and the seminars are all carried in addition to a full course load in other subjects.

One semester in the senior year is devoted to full-time student teaching. Four course credits are granted for student teaching and an accompanying seminar. Student teaching is the only part of the certification program that is awarded course credit.

All teacher-certification students may take courses leading to a minor in education.

The major in Educational Studies cannot be used as the basis for any HWS teacher-certification program. Teacher-certification students may complete a major in Educational Studies as a second major, provided their first major is the appropriate basis for their teacher-certification program.

All candidates for teacher certification in New York State must also, at their own expense, take and pass the examinations required by New York State and be fingerprinted.

Distribution Requirements for Certification
In addition to completing the practica and seminars noted above, all students pursuing certification must fulfill the following distribution requirements: one natural science course (biology, chemistry, geoscience or physics, lab recommended), one social science or history course (two recommended), one fine arts course (art history is acceptable), one literature course (e.g., English, French, Spanish, German or classics) and two courses in a language other than English (or equivalent placement). Note: Distribution requirements are subject to change as New York State publishes new rules for certification. A list of acceptable courses is included in the Teacher Education Program Handbook.

Childhood (1-6) Teacher Certification
Students may prepare to teach at the childhood level (grades 1-6) by completing the childhood teacher certification program. Education practica in this program are completed in a variety of public and private elementary school settings in the Geneva area. Student teaching must be completed in the first through sixth grades. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing childhood certification must also complete a college-level course in mathematics (or receive placement into MATH 130 on the Colleges’ Math Placement exam). Students may pursue any major at the Colleges except Educational Studies, Studio Art, Theatre, and Writing and Rhetoric.

Childhood and Students with Disabilities (1-6) Teacher Certification
Dual certification in special education and in childhood education is available by completing the program in childhood and students with disabilities (grades 1-6). In addition to completing all of the requirements described above for childhood certification, students pursuing special education certification take four courses in special education offered by the education, psychology, and sociology departments, and must complete two additional teacher seminars in special education. Student teaching is carried out in both general elementary classrooms and in special education settings. The special education program at the Colleges is intended to prepare students to work in a variety of school settings with children with and without disabilities.

Adolescent (7-12) Teacher Certification
Students may prepare to teach at the secondary level (grades 7-12) by completing the adolescent teacher certification program. The fieldwork in this program is conducted in the subject area in which students are preparing to teach. The department is licensed to prepare teachers of English, social studies, biology, chemistry, physics, earth science, French, Spanish, Latin, and mathematics. Adolescent certification candidates must meet certain requirements regarding their areas of concentration, and must student teach at the seventh-grade level or higher in the subject area in which they seek certification.

Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Certification (P-12)
Students may prepare to Teach English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) in preschool through grade 12. In addition to completing a complement of teacher seminars, field placements, and distribution requirements similar to those in the adolescent program, students pursuing TESOL certification must take four courses in one or more foreign languages, and EDUC 230 and EDUC 231; students must major in anthropology, arts and education, English, French & Francophone studies, history, individual studies (BA), international relations, psychology (BA), sociology, Spanish & Hispanic studies, theatre, or writing & rhetoric.

Teacher Certification in Art (P-12)
Students may prepare to teach art in preschool through grade 12. Students pursuing certification in art complete their fieldwork in art classrooms in kindergarten through high school, and student teaching is carried out at both the elementary and secondary levels. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing certification in art must also complete a 12-course major in studio art as described elsewhere in the Colleges’ Catalogue with the proviso that the major include either four art history courses, or three art history courses and a course in aesthetics (PHIL 230); and that the art history courses address at least two historical periods or cultures.

Teacher Certification in Music (P-12)
Students may prepare to teach music in preschool through grade 12. Students pursuing certification in music complete their fieldwork in music classrooms in kindergarten through high school, and student teaching is carried out at both the elementary and secondary levels. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing certification in music must also complete a major in music (B.A.) as described elsewhere in the College’s Catalogue, with the proviso that the major must include the following requirements: a) MUS 305 (Conducting); b) at least one course credit (two semesters) of ensemble participation; c) at least one course credit (two semesters) of private applied instruction on a primary instrument or voice; d) at least two additional course credits (four semesters) of private applied instruction (methods) in any four of the following areas: brass, woodwinds, strings, voice, piano, guitar or percussion. Unless the student’s primary instrument is piano, one of the applied methods courses (two semesters) must be in piano.

REQUIRED TEACHER SEMINARS
The following teacher seminars are professional seminars that generally meet weekly. In order to register for any of these seminars, students must be enrolled in a teacher certification program. Teacher seminars carry no academic credit, but do appear on transcripts and are counted toward teacher certification by New York State.

Tutor Seminars
EDUC 072-01 Teaching Students with Special Needs: Elementary
EDUC 072-02 Teaching Students with Special Needs: Secondary
EDUC 081-01 Teaching for Equity
EDUC 082-01 Teaching Reading and Writing—Elementary
EDUC 083-02 Teaching Secondary Science
EDUC 083-03 Teaching Secondary Social Studies
EDUC 083-04 Teaching Secondary English
EDUC 083-05 Teaching Secondary Foreign Language
EDUC 083-06 Teaching Secondary Math
EDUC 083-07 Teaching the Arts: Visual Art
EDUC 083-10 Teaching the Arts: Music
EDUC 083-11 Teaching TESOL

Assistant Teacher Seminars
EDUC 082-02 Teaching Reading and Writing—Secondary
EDUC 083-08 Teaching Elementary School Mathematics
EDUC 083-09 Teaching Elementary School Science
EDUC 084 Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 085 Protecting the Dignity and Safety of All Children

TEACHER SEMINARS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
In addition to the required teacher seminars listed above, students pursuing certification in special education must complete the following two seminars:

Assistant Teacher Seminars
EDUC 073 Assessments and IEPs
EDUC 074 Collaboration and Management

EDUCATION FIELD PRACTICA
The following education practica must be completed by all students in a teacher certification program. Students must be enrolled in a teacher certification program in order to register for these practica.

Education practica carry no academic credit, but do appear on transcripts and are counted toward teacher certification by New York State. Students in these practica are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester working in local classrooms.

Tutor Practica
EDUC 091 Tutor Practicum I
EDUC 092 Tutor Practicum II

Tutor practica are completed by students during their first two semesters in a teacher certification program. Students are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester in a local classroom. In addition to observing master teachers at work, tutors are expected to help individual students with academic work, monitor the completion of guided practice by students, and plan and teach lessons to small groups of students. Practica run concurrently with seminars, and provide the field component for those seminars.

Assistant Teacher Practica
EDUC 093 Assistant Teacher Practicum I
EDUC 094 Assistant Teacher Practicum II

Assistant teacher practica are completed by students during their third and fourth semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms. Students are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester working as assistant teachers in local classrooms. Assistant teachers are expected to teach lessons to small groups of students and to help individuals as needed. While taking on further responsibility for the entire classroom, they are expected to teach an increasing number of large group lessons. Practica run concurrently with seminars, and provide the field component for those seminars.

THE MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING PROGRAM
The MAT program is open on a competitive basis to students who are enrolled in one of the Teacher Education programs at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. The program is designed to be completed in one academic year following graduation, during which students continue their liberal arts studies at the same time as they prepare for teaching certification.

Students in the MAT program pursue graduate-level study in a discipline or program of their choice. They apply that study to teaching by completing a graduate-level education course during the spring of their senior year, by student teaching in the fall semester of their 5th year, and taking a set of related courses during the spring semester of their 5th year. At the conclusion of the program students are eligible for an initial New York State teaching certificate, which may be raised to the professional level after three years of full-time teaching.

Requirements of the MAT Program
The MAT program consists of nine graduate course credits. Candidates must pass all of the courses in the graduate program with a grade of B- or better and maintain a 3.0 GPA during the graduate year. In the spring semester of the senior year, students take EDUC 420 Research in Education. During that semester, they work with their adviser to propose a graduate course of study. In the fall semester of the graduate year, students carry out their student teaching, and take an accompanying seminar. In the spring of the graduate year, students take five courses including graduate education courses, master’s project courses, and electives.

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
Note: Courses numbered 071 to 095 (teaching seminars and field practica) may be taken only by students who have been admitted to a teacher-certification program. They carry no academic credit but are recorded on the student’s official transcript.

EDUC 072 Teaching Special Education In this course students examine a variety of ways that teachers understand learners and design instruction in response to those learners. Students explore a range of strategies used by teachers to accommodate the needs of all students and discuss ways to evaluate student learning strengths and needs. (Kelly, Harris, Fall)

EDUC 073 Assessments and IEPS This seminar focuses on the appropriate uses and limitations of some of the assessment tools used in special education. Alternate and adaptive assessment approaches are considered. Students are also introduced to the process of developing an IEP. (Kelly, Spring)

EDUC 074 Collaboration and Management This seminar investigates a variety of collaborative and management approaches effective teachers utilize. Students first explore the special education teacher's participation as a member of school district and building level interdisciplinary teams and as a team collaborator with general education teaching colleagues. Students then carefully consider the special education teacher's role as an advocate for students with special needs and their families. Finally, students examine classroom management strategies that promote a positive teaching-learning environment that supports all students. (Baker, offered each semester)

EDUC 081 Teaching for Equity This seminar establishes the foundations for effective teaching. As students develop keen observation skills they examine human development processes as manifested in classrooms. They explore the teacher's complex role as well as the social context of schools.  They are introduced to learning processes as they relate to motivation, lesson planning, and classroom management, and they also study student diversity issues to insure that the needs of all students are met. In addition, the seminar outlines a framework for special education, IDEA, and curricular and instructional adaptation. (Collins, Hussain, Roberson, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 082-01 Teaching Reading and Writing in the Elementary School This seminar, in conjunction with the accompanying field placement, shows students contemporary approaches for assessing and teaching reading and writing in elementary schools. Topics include emergent literacy and beginning reading, as well as encouraging reading for pleasure and promoting reading and writing to learn. Attention is given to issues of vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonics, word recognition, fluency, and comprehension, to a range of children including children with special needs and to speakers of other languages. The seminar addresses the New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards and the P-6 Common Core Learning Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy. (Temple, Spring)

EDUC 082-02 Teaching Reading and Writing in the Secondary School This seminar, in conjunction with the accompanying field placement, shows students contemporary approaches for assessing and teaching reading and writing in all subjects taught in secondary schools. Attention is given to developing vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension in reading, and to strategies for writing to learn. Accommodations for students with special needs are considered, along with teaching speakers of other languages. The seminar addresses the New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards and the P-12 Common Core Learning Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy. (Temple, Fall).

EDUC 083-02 Teaching Secondary Science This seminar focuses on inquiry teaching and learning approaches to science. Students engage in a variety of science activities designed to model different teaching strategies. They analyze their lessons, incorporate technology where appropriate, and adapt curriculum to meet the needs of all students. Students are encouraged to be reflective about their practice. Local, state and national resources are addressed with an emphasis on New York State Learning Standards. (MaKinster, Spring)

EDUC 083-03 Teaching Secondary Social Studies The purpose of this seminar is to acquaint students with social studies teacher certification requirements, the literature and professional organizations that serve as resources in social studies instruction, the process and substance of curriculum (with emphasis on New York State Learning Standards), and issues that are central to social studies instruction in the United States. Students make connections between what they are seeing in their field placements and what they are learning in the seminars. Included in the course is the use of instructional technology in teaching, evaluative techniques, and integrating the social dimension into geographic concepts. Readings include the New York State Resource Guide, Drake and Nelson’s Engagement in Teaching History, selected literature for young people and selected articles from social studies journals. (Gibbon, Hussain, Spring)

EDUC 083-04 Teaching Secondary English This seminar examines the theoretical and practical dimensions of effective teaching and learning in secondary English classrooms. Students reflect on their field-based experiences in secondary school settings and make connections to the reading and writing processes. They design, assess and analyze lessons that incorporate the New York State Learning Standards, adapting the curriculum to meet the needs of all students when appropriate. They review the journals and organizations that support the profession and develop an understanding of educational technology and its function in the English classroom. (Staff, Spring)

EDUC 083-05 Teaching Secondary Foreign Language This seminar addresses teaching, learning, and curriculum for students pursuing adolescent certification to teach a foreign language. After studying second language acquisition, students explore methods and techniques of teaching a language other than English as well as ways of developing cross-cultural understanding among adolescents. In addition to becoming familiar with New York State Learning Standards for teaching foreign language and other resources for teaching language, students explore ways to utilize technology and discuss means of assessing student achievement. (Staff, Spring)

EDUC 083-06 Teaching Secondary Math This seminar focuses on mathematics pedagogy that emphasizes problem solving, connections between mathematics and other disciplines, student-centered discourse, and authentic assessment in the contexts of New York State and national standards. Students develop and analyze lessons that incorporate appropriate technology to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Students reflect on their experiences in the concurrent field placement. (Kehle, Spring)

EDUC 083-07 Teaching the Arts: Visual Art (P-12) This seminar addresses the theory and practice of teaching the visual arts. After examining the artistic development of students in preschool through high school, students concentrate on developing methods of teaching the arts at all grade levels. Students design and critique arts lessons, which meet the New York State Learning Standards for the Arts. Students also examine methods and techniques for assessing student performance in the arts, discuss ways of adapting arts activities to meet the needs of all students, and explore means of teaching the arts across the curriculum. (Staff, Spring)

EDUC 083-08 Teaching Elementary School Mathematics This seminar focuses on how children construct mathematical understanding and on pedagogy that facilitates the learning of mathematics. The emphasis is on designing and using child-centered explorations supported by multiple representations and by balanced attention to developing both procedural fluency and conceptual understanding. Students learn how to develop mathematical curiosity and appreciation, and how to help all children become confident mathematical problem solvers. The seminar is informed by National and New York State Learning Standards and is driven by the goal of becoming a reflective teacher of mathematics. (Kehle, Fall)

EDUC 083-09 Teaching Elementary School Science This seminar focuses on inquiry teaching methods to teach and learn science. Students engage in a variety of science activities designed to model different strategies. They analyze and assess their lessons, incorporate technology where appropriate, and adapt curriculum to meet the needs of all students. They are encouraged to be reflective about their practice. Local, state and national resources are available, with an emphasis on the New York State Learning Standards. (MaKinster, Fall)

EDUC 083-10 Teaching the Arts: Music (P-12) This seminar addresses the theory and practice of teaching the both choral and instrumental music. After examining the musical development of students in preschool through high school, students concentrate on developing methods of teaching music at all grade levels. Students design and critique music lessons, which meet the New York State Learning Standards for the Arts. Students also examine methods and techniques for assessing student performance in music, discuss ways of adapting music activities to meet the needs of all students, and explore means of teaching the music across the curriculum. (Staff, Spring)

EDUC 083-11 Teaching English Language Learners This seminar is required of those pursuing certification as Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Methods, materials, and assessment for teaching English Language Learners are covered. (Roberson, Spring)

EDUC 084 Curriculum and Instruction In this seminar, students examine long-term curriculum development.  After discussing curriculum theory students choose a theme in an area of the curriculum which they wish to explore and develop a "curriculum project" (short course or teaching unit) which could be used to teach their specific theme over a period of several weeks.  Attention is given to aligning curricula with New York State Learning Standards and developing integrated curricula as well as adapting curricula for students with special needs. Students also examine a number of models of teaching.  Groups of students are assigned different models of teaching, design lesson plans illustrating those models, and present those lessons for analysis.  Assessment is also discussed in terms of the curriculum projects which students develop. (Collins, Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 085 Protecting the Dignity and Safety of All Children This seminar focuses on three main areas of special need: substance abuse, identification and reporting of child abuse and maltreatment, and families in conflict.  Students are informed about alcohol and other drugs, the physical and behavioral indicators of substance abuse, and mandated reporting procedures.  The seminar provides an array of options for teachers who are confronted by problems raised by substance abuse.  Students are given alternative means for creating safe and nurturing learning environments for all students, including instruction in fire and arson prevention, preventing child abduction, and providing safety education.  Family dynamics, factors in the home, and the development of a sense of community and mutual respect are given special consideration. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 091 Tutor Practicum I Tutor practica are completed by students during their two semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms. In addition to observing master teachers at work, tutors are expected to help individual students with academic work, monitor the completion of guided practice by students, and plan and teach lessons to small groups of students. These practica run concurrently with EDUC 081 and 082, and provide the field component for those seminars. (Offered annually)

EDUC 092 Tutor Practicum II Tutor practica are completed by students during their two semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms. In addition to observing master teachers at work, tutors are expected to help individual students with academic work, monitor the completion of guided practice by students, and plan and teach lessons to small groups of students. These practica run concurrently with EDUC 081 and 082, and provide the field component for those seminars. (Offered annually)

EDUC 093 Assistant Teacher Practicum I

EDUC 094 Assistant Teacher Practicum II Assistant teacher practica are completed by students during their third and fourth semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms.  Students are required to spend at least three hours a week (for the entire semester) working as assistant teachers in local classrooms. Assistant teachers are expected to teach lessons to small groups of students and to help individuals as needed. While taking on further responsibility for the entire classroom, they are expected to teach an increasing number of large group lessons. These practica run concurrently with EDUC 083 and 084, and provide the field component for those seminars. (Offered annually)

EDUC 095 Assistant Teacher Practicum Assistant teacher practica are completed by students during their third and fourth semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms. Students are required to spend at least three hours a week (for the entire semester) working as assistant teachers in local classrooms. Assistant teachers are expected to teach lessons to small groups of students and to help individuals as needed. While taking on further responsibility for the entire classroom, they are expected to teach an increasing number of large group lessons. These practica run concurrently with EDUC 083 and 084, and provide the field component for those seminars. (Offered annually)

EDUC 115 Introduction to Linguistics This course provides an introduction to the scientific study of language. We will address questions related to the nature of language as a means of communication, and then focus on the core areas in linguistic analysis, including phonetics and phonology (the structure and patterns of sounds), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meanings of words), and pragmatics (words in use). We will also briefly discuss topics in language variation, consider the importance and types of data in linguistics, and identify implications for education. (Roberson, offered alternate years)

EDUC 170 Race Dialogues for Community and Change "Race Dialogues for Community and Change" puts Hobart and William Smith (HWS) students and Geneva School (GHS) students in critical dialogue about race, community and social justice. Both GHS and HWS students will participate in weekly conversations that address issues of race and racism and develop a civic program for community action. Participants will learn a language and capacity for dialogue by which to reflect upon and learn about self and others and they will identify and plan individual and collective actions to empower and engage students on HWS and GHS campuses. This service-learning course will meet at Geneva High School.

EDUC 200 Philosophy of Education This course is designed to help students articulate and critically examine their own philosophical notions of education. It addresses questions such as: What is education? What are the aims of education? What does it mean to be educated? What are the processes of education? What should be the relationship between education and society? Throughout the course, an emphasis is placed upon conceptual analysis of the problems of education in terms of contemporary educational practice. This course is run as a seminar; with the guidance of the instructor, students are responsible for preparing and presenting units of study to be discussed by the entire class. (Collins, offered alternate years)

EDUC 201 Schooling and Social Equality This course traces a social and political history of American schooling. Beginning with the meteoric rise of formal schooling in the 19th century, the course examines how the common schooling movement radically transformed the economic and political significance of education in America. Next the course follows the schooling experiences of groups systemically targeted by policy makers: European immigrant, working class, Indigenous, Chicano/a, Black, new immigrant and women of each group. We shall seek to understand the significance of schooling for various communities as well as the reforms produced from resistance and contestation. (Hussain, offered alternate years)

EDUC 202 Human Growth and Development This is a survey of the major theories of human development. Topics include the progression and determinants of the development of personality, intelligence, language, social competence, literacy, and artistic and music ability. Readings are taken from works by Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Gardner, Gilligan, and others. (Harris, Fall)

EDUC 203 Children With Disabilities The intent of this course is for students to develop a thorough understanding of and sensitivity to children and youth who experience disabilities. The course examines the following questions: How does society determine who is disabled? What impact does labeling have on children's lives? How special is special education? What are the various disabilities children may experience? How do children with disabilities fit in the mainstream of American life? (Offered annually)

EDUC 209 Gender and Schooling This course examines the entanglement of gendered identities and the educational experience. This course will address questions of how educational institutions operate as sites for the production and reinforcement of gender norms. We will examine how the gendered positions of teachers and students shape the educational experience and investigate how gender inequalities impact educational achievement. Through a variety of readings this course will ask students to address how gender operates within school settings, how gender and sexuality are shaped by educational institutions, and how scholars, teachers, and youth might work to address these inequalities.

EDUC 220 Storytelling Storytelling is the oldest form of teaching. Knowing how to marshal words, voice, gestures, and meaning to orchestrate an audience's imaginative experience is still an essential part of any communicator's competence, whether in leadership, peace building, religious education, teaching, or artistic performance. The scholarship concerning story and the oral tradition is hefty and interesting, and students will read from it. But the main emphasis of the course is developing skill as storytellers as students consider dozens of stories from many traditions and practice telling stories in many ways to different audiences both in and out of class. The course is intended to fulfill a performing arts goal. (Temple, offered annually in the spring)

EDUC 222 Learning, Teaching, Schools, and Mathematics Contemporary society-through the sciences, many jobs, industries, health issues, economic theories, and technologies-depends upon mathematics and quantitative literacy. Mathematical knowledge has also been part of human culture since the earliest civilizations. Being more informed about mathematics education helps students be more responsive to contemporary educational issues. Student interest determines topics selected from: effective pedagogy, the cognitive nature of mathematical problem solving, the roles of mathematics in education and society, state and federal standards, comparative education, curriculum, assessment, and equity. Crosslisted with Cognition, Logic and Language. (Kehle, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 225 Educational Leadership Educational settings are being newly defined by technology and globalization. As access to global networks continues to spur an interconnectedness, today's educators must navigate environments where complex social challenges exist, resource allocations are unpredictable and systems are consistently impacted by external forces, such new policy or laws from state or federal governments. Contemporary educational leaders must engage across difference, identify critical needs, build coalitions, manage uncertainty and collaborate with stakeholders. This course is designed to provide a conceptual framework of leadership theory as well as introduce a variety of change models that can be applied within educational settings. (MaKinster, offered alternate years)

EDUC 230 Teaching English Language Learners While the number of school children speaking a language other than English at home has been growing exponentially over the last few decades, their level of academic achievement has lagged significantly behind that of their language-majority peers. This course aims to contribute to preparing future teachers for working in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. One of its major goals is to give students a better understanding of the cognitive, linguistic, and emotional challenges involved in being schooled in a second language. In the first part of the course, therefore, through readings and discussions, students will become acquainted with some key theoretical frameworks for understanding second language and literacy development as well as sociocultural issues particularly relevant to the education of English language learners. The second major goal of the course is to provide students with pedagogical strategies for adjusting instruction to meet the needs of English language learners in the mainstream classroom. This goal will be achieved in the second part of the course, which will consist predominantly of lesson planning workshops and teaching demonstrations. The course will have a service-learning component consisting of 15-20 hours of tutoring an English language learner. (Roberson, offered alternate years)

EDUC 231 Linguistics and English Grammar for Teaching English as a Second Language This course aims to provide an introduction to the study of language to all students interested in the way language works. Students will learn linguistics by “doing linguistics,” that is, by analyzing language data both in contrived exercises and in “live” samples (billboard signs, newspaper headlines, etc.). They will gain a basic understanding of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and language variation, and of the ways in which language is represented in writing. The course also aims to develop students' awareness of basic English grammar and to enable them to explain its rules to learners of English as a second or foreign language. (Roberson, offered alternate years)

EDUC 301 Drama in a Developmental Context Students in this course study the relationship between dramatic experience and human development with an eye toward examining the educational potential of drama. In addition to exploring various perspectives on drama in education, students complete readings that analyze the functions of drama in human development. The course runs as a workshop/seminar in which students experience and analyze various methods of using drama for educational purposes. Students also develop a drama project with a group of local children. (Collins, Spring)

EDUC 304 Representations, Inferences, and Meanings Learning, teaching, research, artistic expression, and everyday life all involve making sense of aspects of the world around us. In these activities, and across diverse disciplines, humans employ the same fundamental cognitive mechanisms and processes but generate very different results: mathematical proofs, poetry, scientific or historical explanations, paintings, etc. Students use cognitive science frameworks to trace the roles played by different ways of representing and connecting thoughts, and to explore how they simultaneously enable and constrain understanding. Students analyze episodes of sense-making and become more aware of their own cognition and better able to help others construct meaning. (Kehle, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 306 Technology And Disability This course will actively explore the user of assistive technology (AT) and universal design (UD) for children with disabilities. We will focus on social, legal, and ecological factors relating to the use of AT and UD in education and community settings. Participants will explore various technologies from non-electronic “low-tech” to “high-tech” devices, and learn strategies to assess AT and the strengths and needs of children with disabilities. We will examine issues of mobility, speech communication, independent living and self-determination, along with Universal Design principles. Participants will have hands-on opportunities to use AT. (Kelly, offered alternate years)

EDUC 307 Civil Rights Education Since the Supreme Court's 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board, educational equality has been central to the ongoing struggle for civil rights in the U.S. This course will explore the origins and legacy of civil rights activism with regard to educational opportunity, with a focus on current issues of racial and socioeconomic justice. Taking a social history perspective, the course will evaluate major debates between civil rights leaders in the 1930’s and the movements that dramatically emerged in the 1960’s and continue today. Of particular interest to this course is an analysis of why schooling in particular has been central to civil rights struggles. (Hussain, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 320 Children's Literature Children's literature is roughly as old as the United States, and in recent years it has evolved into the most energetic branch of the publishing industry, with works in the genres of folk tales, poetry, picture books, "easy readers," informational books, chapter books, and novels for middle grades and young adults. Children's books regularly spawn films, and even as we speak the medium is rapidly becoming digital. Children's books can be read carefully for their literary qualities, and are an interesting testing ground for skills in literary criticism. Children's books have been part of the effort to promote multicultural education and social justice in the schools, too; and with the recent robust push-back of conservative religious and political books for children, it is useful to examine the political and social dimension of children's literature. This course examines a set of children's books from many angles, and is suitable for those interested in writing or publishing for children, for future teachers, and for people interested in literature generally. (Temple, offered alternate years)

EDUC 321 Creating Children's Literature In this course, students will write and share manuscripts in several genres of fiction and nonfiction for children and young people after examining several exemplary children's books for their features. Students will consider issues of child development and the social and pedagogical purpose of children's literature in relation to appealing literature for children. And they will consult with practicing writers, illustrators, book designers, editors, and critics of children's books, both live and in print.  In the process, students will channel their creativity as well as their disciplinary knowledge into works that may be of value to children. (Temple, offered annually)

EDUC 323 Comparative and International Education Schools in Finland do a far better job of educating students from all corners of society than American schools, by pursuing approaches that are virtually the opposite of what policy-makers in the US are currently demanding. Research methods form comparative education can guide us as we ask what other countries do that might succeed in our own context. In recent decades the Education for All initiative has brought millions more students into the primary school classrooms of poor countries. Yet in 2013 few sixth graders in Mali could read a sentence, and of the high school seniors in Liberia who took university entrance exams, none passed. International education is the study of what the children's educational needs are in developing countries, what is being done about them, and what is working. This course is a survey of both comparative and international education, with case studies from countries with both high and low educational achievement. (Temple, offered alternate years)

EDUC 330 Disability and Transition This course will explore issues related to transitions in the lives of individuals with disabilities, with a focus on transitions between school and adulthood. Current and emerging issues related to equal access for people with disabilities in post-secondary educational, vocational residential, and community settings will be explored. Educational policies and practices related to students with disabilities will also be examined, including self-determination and self-advocacy, IEP planning, assistive technologies, and accommodations. (Kelly, offered alternate years)

EDUC 331 Rethinking Families This course is an exploration of the concept of the family in relation to the policies and institutions that shape our daily lives. We will explore the ways that multiple family formations challenge our conceptions of what makes a family and consider how families are impacted by categories of race, class, citizenship, ability, and sexuality. We will then examine how the family institution has been positioned as a key political site, and explore how families are shaped by public education, law, and social welfare policies, among other institutions. This course asks students to develop an understanding of the family as a political institution, to consider a variety of diverse family formations, and to critically examine the policies and institutions that shape the lives of children and families in the contemporary United States. (N. Rodriguez, offered annually)

EDUC 333 Literacy Sixty million adult Americans are said to be functionally illiterate. So are nearly a billion other adults on the planet. In this course, we consider what these people are missing, in terms of ways of thinking and seeing the world as well as in civic and economic life. Then we will plunge into what we might do to help them. Solutions are not simple. We will need to explore the history of the English conventions of writing and spelling, the linguistic basis for reading skill, and “best practices” of teaching reading and writing. Since promoting literacy is a major concern of the international development community, the course will briefly consider international literacy efforts like Education for All, EGRA, and the work of CODE-Canada, and other agencies. The course is relevant to those interested in educational aspects of public policy, international development, and teaching in the schools. It will also be useful to students involved in tutoring projects such as America Reads. (Temple, offered annually)

EDUC 336 Special Topics in Education The purpose of this series of courses is to investigate a variety of specific, salient social issues in the field of education. Current topics include Self-Determination in Special Education; Transition and Disability: Diversity, Children, and Families; and Life after High School.  (Repeatable) (Staff)

EDUC 346 Technology in Education This course explores the relationship between the evolution of educational technology and the pedagogical purposes that technology serves. Beginning with an examination of educational technology throughout the 20th century students explore ways in which educational technology is currently used, and might be used, to create opportunities for meaningful learning. Some of the topics explored are historical patterns of technology use, identity in online environments, communities of practice, the digital divide, apprenticeship, geospatial technologies, and Web 2.0 technology. (MaKinster, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 348 Our National Parks The U.S. National Park Service functions to preserve unique and invaluable cultural resources throughout the country. At the same time, our parks serve a number of more personal purposes. They renew our spirits, provide endless formal and informal educational opportunities and are diverse settings for recreational activities. Students explore our National Park system from educational, historical, sociological, cultural, scientific, political and economic perspectives.  Controversies abound when one examines the history and current state of our parks. At the same time, contemporary threats to our parks include financial troubles, overuse by the public, pollution, industry pressures and political agendas. The complexity of these situations create a series of educational challenges in terms of helping visitors, regional citizens and politicians make well-informed personal and political decisions. This course may require at least two weekend field trips. (MaKinster, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 401 Analysis of Secondary School Teaching This seminar accompanies EDUC 402 403, student teaching in the secondary schools and is open only to adolescent teacher certification participants engaged as full-time student teachers.  It provides a structure within which participants critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development, with the goal of becoming reflective practitioners.  Texts and readings are selected from those that provide analysis of the experience of secondary school education, as well as those that provide rationales for the methods and purposes of the academic disciplines.  This course must be passed with a C or better in order to be recommended for certification. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 402/403 Secondary Practicum The practicum experience includes supervised observation and teaching of an academic subject in a secondary school. Students spend the entire day at a secondary school for the complete term. EDUC 402 403 must be taken on a credit/no credit basis. EDUC 401 is taken concurrently. This course is open only to candidates seeking secondary school teacher certification. The readings for this course are determined by the subject and grade level being taught. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 404 Analysis of Elementary and Special Education Teaching This course is open only to elementary and special education teacher certification program participants engaged as full-time student teachers. It provides student teachers with an opportunity to critique education as it is offered in school settings for all children. Participants focus on becoming reflective practitioners as they critically examine teaching, learning, and curriculum development. Emphasis is placed on application of the above to the teaching of reading English Language Arts. Students must pass this course with a grade of C or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, offered each semester)

EDUC 405/406 Elementary Practicum Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activity in an elementary school classroom setting for an academic term. It is expected that the student take on all responsibilities normally accepted by elementary teachers. These include supervision of children, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, participation in professional conferences or in service training sessions, and budgeting. EDUC 405 406 is open only to seniors who participate in the elementary teacher certification program. This course must be taken on a credit/no credit basis. (Harris, offered each semester)

EDUC 407 Special Education Practicum This is full-time student teaching, taken in tandem with EDUC 405 during the second seven weeks of the semester. Students complete student teaching (as described in EDUC 405 above) in elementary special education settings. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Kelly/Baker, offered each semester)

EDUC 410 Analysis of Teaching in the Disciplines This professional field-based seminar focuses on the development of a deeper understanding of the disciplinary content the student teacher is teaching. Through weekly conversations with his or her student-teaching college supervisor, the student will develop a more advanced understanding of how content knowledge combines with pedagogical content knowledge in effective teaching. Weekly observations of the student teacher by the supervisor and readings selected from educational journals and books will support these conversations. This seminar supports students as they prepare for and take the edTPA student teacher assessment. Occasional group meetings may be held. (Offered each semester)

EDUC 412 Analysis of Teaching the Arts This course is open only to students pursuing certification in art who are engaged in full-time student teaching. It provides a structure within which students critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development within the arts, with an eye towards helping students become reflective practitioners. Emphasis is placed upon helping students meet the developmental needs of all students (p-12) while also exploring means of helping all learners meet the New York State Learning Standards in the Arts. This course must be passed with a grade of C or better in order to be recommended for certification. (Offered each semester)

EDUC 415 Analysis of TESOL (Permission of instructor; open only to TESOL student teachers). Analysis of TESOL is a full-semester seminar to accompany the student teaching semester for students involved in one of several programs leading to New York State certification in Teaching English to speaker of other languages, kindergarten through grade 12.  In the seminar the students carry out readings and discussions on teaching speaking, listening, reading and writing in English, and relate academic writings on these issues to daily experiences in classrooms.

EDUC 420 Seminar: Research in Education Open only to Master of Arts in Teaching students or educational studies majors using it as their capstone, this course is a survey of educational research and research methodology with an emphasis on qualitative and teacher-generated research. (Offered annually)

EDUC 450 Independent Study

EDUC 456 1/2 Credit Independent Study

EDUC 495 Honors

EDUC 601 Analysis of Teaching in Secondary School, Graduate Level This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the adolescent teacher certification program. It provides a structure within which participants critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development, with the goal of becoming reflective practitioners. Texts and readings are selected from those that provide analysis of the experience of secondary school education, as well as those that provide rationales for the methods and purposes of the academic disciplines. Students must pass this course with a grade of B- or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 602-603 Graduate Practicum in Secondary School Teaching These courses are open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the adolescent teacher certification program. This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activities, in a middle or high school classroom (in their area of certification), for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibilities normally accepted by secondary school teachers. These include supervision of students, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 604 Analysis of Teaching in Elementary and Special Education, Graduate Level This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood or childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification programs. It provides student teachers with an opportunity to critique education as it is offered in school settings for all children. Participants focus on becoming reflective practitioners and on developing and implementing curriculum to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Emphasis is placed on application of the above to the teaching of reading. Recent research pertaining to education is discussed. Students must pass this course with a grade of B- or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 605-606 Graduate Practicum in Elementary School Teaching These courses are open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood or childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification programs. This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activities in an elementary school classroom setting for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibility normally accepted by elementary school teachers. These include supervision of children, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 607 Graduate Practicum in Teaching Children with Special Needs This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification program. This is full-time student teaching, taken in tandem with EDUC 605 during the second seven weeks of the semester. Students complete student teaching (as described in EDUC 605 above) in elementary special education settings. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Baker, Kelly, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 801 & 803 Master’s Project Students will complete a graduate level integrative group project that addresses an issue of educational relevance. This project will analyze an educational issue from multiple perspectives and develop a set of presentations will be presented publically (e.g., Senior Symposium, Community Engaged Scholarship Forum, community meeting with stakeholders, conference presentation).  (Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 801 Master’s Project (Fall)

EDUC 802 Master’s Thesis (Spring)

EDUC 820 Graduate Seminar in Education Research Students will explore educationally relevant research and practices through the course and individually produce a literature review addressing an area of focus. An outside faculty reader must be identified who will review the final literature review. Prerequisite: EDUC 420 (Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 821 Educational Foundations The course takes an interdisciplinary approach to critically examine the fundamental nature of American education. Students will draw on theoretical frameworks from education, history, sociology, public policy and philosophy to make critical inquiries into educational problems, such as multiculturalism, contemporary school reform, and equality of educational opportunity. Students will explore the interplay of various actors that inform educational experiences, such as children, policy makers, and families, as well as critically engaging “text and self” in relation to educational apparatuses. Ultimately, this course aims to provide pre-service teachers with a rich understanding of the sociopolitical context of schooling and education and the necessary analytical tools to support ethical and responsive teaching and research. Prerequisite: EDUC 420 (Spring, offered annually)

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Preparing Students to Lead Lives of Consequence.