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2014-2016 COURSE CATALOGUE : EDUCATION

The Education Department at Hobart and William Smith Colleges has two missions. One is to provide courses of study in education. The other is to offer programs that lead to New York State certification as teachers of most subjects in public primary and secondary schools.
The Education Department offers a disciplinary and interdisciplinary minor, undergraduate program leading to teacher certification in several fields, and a graduate program leading to the Master of Arts in Teaching degree.

UNDERGRADUATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS
The department offers programs leading to New York State initial certification in childhood education (grades 1-6), childhood and students with disabilities (1-6), visual arts (PreK-12), music (PreK-12), TESOL (PreK-12), and several disciplines in adolescent education (7-12).
New York State certification is recognized in most other states.

In all Hobart and William Smith certification programs, students learn to teach by teaching, and devote the majority of their course concentrations to academic study outside of the department. Students in teacher certification programs may major in almost any discipline or program offered by the Colleges, with the proviso that those seeking adolescent certification or certification to teach art or music must major in the subject area in which they wish to be certified (e.g., mathematics, chemistry, art, English).

Students typically apply for admission to the undergraduate certification programs in the spring of their first year. Those admitted begin in their sophomore year. Students who are willing to complete student teaching during a ninth semester may apply as sophomores. Students who transfer into the Colleges are admitted on a rolling basis. Admission to the program is competitive and is based on good academic standing, demonstrated interest in teaching, and personal traits such as initiative, punctuality and responsibility.

All students admitted to a certification program are required to complete four semesters of fieldwork (education practica) in local classrooms. Students must spend at least 40 hours per semester working in a classroom in which they are placed by the department. Tutors (sophomores) are expected to observe their cooperating teachers, work with individuals and small groups, and occasionally teach a whole class. Assistant teachers (juniors) take on increased responsibilities and regularly teach whole classes. Students are supervised as they teach and are offered personal guidance and encouragement to develop their own best teaching styles. In addition, all students must complete at least six teacher seminars that run concurrently with the fieldwork. Teacher seminars generally meet once a week and address issues of pedagogy.

One semester in the senior year is devoted to full-time student teaching. Four course credits are granted for student teaching and an accompanying seminar. Student teaching is the only part of the certification program that is awarded course credit. Tutoring, assistant teaching, and the teacher seminars are all undertaken outside of the normal curriculum and are carried in addition to a full course load in other subjects. However, students may elect to take courses offered by the department leading toward a minor. All candidates for teacher certification in New York State must also, at their own expense, take and pass the appropriate examinations required by New York State and be fingerprinted.

Distribution Requirements for Certification
In addition to completing the education practica and teacher seminars as noted above, all students pursuing certification must fulfill the following distribution requirements: one natural science course (biology, chemistry, geoscience or physics, lab recommended), one social science or history course (two recommended), one fine arts course (art history is acceptable), one literature course (e.g., English, French, Spanish, German or classics) and two courses in a language other than English (or placement at or above the second year level in a language). Note: Distribution requirements are subject to change as New York State publishes new rules for certification. A list of acceptable courses are included within the Teacher Education Program Handbook.

Childhood (1-6) Teacher Certification
Students may prepare to teach at the childhood level (grades 1-6) by completing the childhood teacher certification program. Education practica in this program are completed in a variety of public and private elementary school settings in the Geneva area. Student teaching must be completed in the first through sixth grades. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing childhood certification must also complete a college-level course in mathematics (or receive placement into MATH 130 on the Colleges’ Math Placement exam). Students may pursue any major at the Colleges except Studio Art.

Childhood and Students with Disabilities (1-6) Teacher Certification
Certification in special education along with childhood education is available by completing the program in childhood and students with disabilities (grades 1-6). In addition to completing all of the requirements described above for childhood certification, students pursuing special education certification must take at least four courses in special education offered by the education, psychology, and sociology departments, and must complete two additional teacher seminars in special education. Student teaching is carried out in both general elementary classrooms and in special education settings. The special education program at the Colleges is intended to prepare students to work in a variety of school settings with children with and without disabilities.

Adolescent (7-12) Teacher Certification
Students may prepare to teach at the secondary level (grades 7-12) by completing the adolescent teacher certification program. The fieldwork in this program is conducted in the subject area in which students are preparing to teach. The department is licensed to prepare teachers of English, social studies, biology, chemistry, physics, earth science, general science, French, Spanish, Latin, and mathematics. Adolescent certification candidates must meet certain requirements regarding their areas of concentration and must student teach at the seventh-grade level or higher in the subject area in which they seek certification.

Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Certification (P-12)
Students may prepare to Teach English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) in preschool through grade 12. In addition to completing a similar complement of teacher education seminars, field placements, and distribution requirements to students in the adolescent program, students pursuing TESOL certification must take a set of dedicated seminars, four courses in one or more foreign languages, and also EDUC 230 Teaching English Language Learners, and EDUC 231 Linguistics and English Grammar for Teaching English Language Learners.

Teacher Certification in Art (P-12)
Students may prepare to teach art in preschool through grade 12. Students pursuing certification in art complete their fieldwork in art classrooms in kindergarten through high school and student teaching is carried out at both the elementary and secondary levels. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing certification in art must also complete a 12-course major in studio art as described elsewhere in the Colleges’ Catalogue with the proviso that the major include either four art history courses, or three art history courses and a course in aesthetics (PHIL 230); and that the art history courses address at least two historical periods or cultures.

Teacher Certification in Music (P-12)
Students may prepare to teach music in preschool through grade 12. Students pursuing certification in music complete their fieldwork in music classrooms in kindergarten through high school and student teaching is carried out at both the elementary and secondary levels. In addition to the distribution requirements noted above, students pursuing certification in music must also complete a major in music (B.A.) as described elsewhere in the College’s Catalogue, with the proviso that the major must include the following requirements: a) MUS 305 (Conducting); b) at least one course credit (two semesters) of ensemble participation; c) at least one course credit (two semesters) of private applied instruction on a primary instrument or voice; d) at least two additional course credits (four semesters) of private applied instruction (methods) in any four of the following areas: brass, woodwinds, strings, voice, piano, guitar or percussion. Unless the student’s primary instrument is piano, one of the applied methods courses (two semesters) must be in piano.

REQUIRED TEACHER SEMINARS
The following teacher seminars are professional seminars that generally meet weekly. In order to register for any of these seminars, students must be enrolled in a teacher certification program. Teacher seminars carry no academic credit, but do appear on transcripts and are counted toward teacher certification by New York State.

Tutor Seminars
EDUC 072-01 Teaching Students with Special Needs: Elementary
EDUC 072-02 Teaching Students with Special Needs: Secondary
EDUC 081-01 Teaching for Equity
EDUC 082-01 Teaching Reading and Writing—Elementary
EDUC 083-02 Teaching Secondary Science
EDUC 083-03 Teaching Secondary Social Studies
EDUC 083-04 Teaching Secondary English
EDUC 083-05 Teaching Secondary Foreign Language
EDUC 083-06 Teaching Secondary Math
EDUC 083-07 Teaching the Arts: Visual Art
EDUC 083-10  Teaching the Arts: Music
EDUC 083-11 Teaching TESOL

Assistant Teacher Seminars
EDUC 082-02 Teaching Reading and Writing—Secondary
EDUC 083-08 Teaching Elementary School Mathematics
EDUC 083-09 Teaching Elementary School Science
EDUC 084 Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 085 Protecting Children: Policies and Practices

TEACHER SEMINARS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
In addition to the required teacher seminars listed above, students pursuing certification in special education must complete the following seminars:

Assistant Teacher Seminars
EDUC 073 Assessments and IEPs
EDUC 074 Collaboration and Management

EDUCATION PRACTICA
The following education practica must be completed by all students planning to complete a teacher certification program. Students must be enrolled in a teacher certification program in order to register for any of these practica.

Education practica carry no academic credit, but do appear on transcripts and are counted toward teacher certification by New York State. Students in these practica are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester working in local classrooms.

Tutor Practica
EDUC 091 Tutor Practicum I
EDUC 092 Tutor Practicum II

Tutor practica are completed by students during their first two semesters in a teacher certification program. Students are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester in a local classroom. In addition to observing master teachers at work, tutors are expected to help individual students with academic work, monitor the completion of guided practice by students, and plan and teach lessons to small groups of students. These practica run concurrently with teacher seminars, and provide the field component for those seminars.

Assistant Teacher Practica
EDUC 093 Assistant Teacher Practicum I
EDUC 094 Assistant Teacher Practicum II

Assistant teacher practica are completed by students during their third and fourth semesters in a teacher certification program. These practica provide students with field experiences in local classrooms. Students are required to spend at least 40 hours a semester working as assistant teachers in local classrooms. Assistant teachers are expected to teach lessons to small groups of students and to help individuals as needed. While taking on further responsibility for the entire classroom, they are expected to teach an increasing number of large group lessons. These practica run concurrently with teacher seminars, and provide the field component for those seminars.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR
interdisciplinary, 6 courses
Six courses, at least two, but not more than three, in education. Courses in this minor must contribute to a theme grounded in education courses; courses outside education must be conceptually related to the education courses. At least four of the six courses must be at the 300-level or above. Only one independent study may be counted toward the minor. At least three courses must be unique to the minor. Any course used in meeting requirements for the minor must be passed with a grade of C- or better.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR
disciplinary, 5 courses
Any five education courses with at least two courses at the 200-level, and at least two at the 300- or 400-level. Only one independent study may count toward the minor. SOC 261 Sociology of Education may substitute for one of the 200-level education courses; WRRH 322 Adolescent Literature, and AEP 335 Arts and Human Development may substitute for 300 or above education courses. At least three courses must be unique to the minor. Students majoring in arts and education may not minor in education. Any course used in meeting requirements for the minor must be passed with a grade of C- or better.

THE MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING PROGRAM
The MAT program is open on a competitive basis to students who are enrolled in one of the Teacher Education programs at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. The program is designed to be completed in one academic year following graduation, during which students continue their liberal arts studies at the same time as they prepare for teaching certification.
Students in the MAT program pursue graduate-level study in a discipline or program of their choice. They apply that study to teaching by completing a graduate-level education course during the spring of their senior year, by student teaching in the fall semester of their 5th year, and taking a set of related courses during the spring semester of their 5th year. At the conclusion of the program students are eligible for a temporary New York State teaching certificate, which may be raised to the professional level after three years of full-time teaching.

Requirements of the MAT Program
The MAT program consists of nine graduate course credits. Candidates must pass all of the courses in the graduate program with a grade of B- or better and maintain a 3.0 GPA during the graduate year. In the spring semester of the senior year, students take EDUC 420 Research in Education. During that semester, they work with their advisor to propose a graduate course of study. In the fall semester of the graduate year, students carry out their student teaching, and take an accompanying seminar. In the spring of the graduate year, students take five courses:

  • One undergraduate course taken as an elective at the graduate level
  • EDUC 620 Foundations of Education
  • EDUC 801 & 803 Master’s Project Courses
  • EDUC 820 Graduate Seminar in Education

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
Note: Courses numbered 071 to 094 (teaching seminars and education practica) may be taken only by students who have been admitted to a teacher certification program. They carry no academic credit but are recorded on the student’s official transcript.

EDUC 091 Tutor Practicum I (Offered annually)

EDUC 092 Tutor Practicum II (Offered annually)

EDUC 093 Assistant Teacher Practicum I (Offered annually)

EDUC 094 Assistant Teacher Practicum II (Offered annually)

EDUC 072 Teaching Students With Special Needs In this seminar, students examine a variety of ways that teachers understand learners and design instruction in response to those learners. Students explore a range of strategies used by teachers to accommodate the needs of all students and discuss ways to evaluate student learning strengths and needs. (Kelly/Harris, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 073 Assessments and IEPs This seminar focuses on the appropriate uses and limitations of some of the assessment tools used in special education. Alternate and adaptive assessment approaches are considered. Students are also introduced to the process of developing an educational plan. (Kelly, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 074 Collaboration and Management This seminar investigates a variety of collaborative and management approaches effective teachers utilize. Students first explore the special education teacher’s participation as a member of school district and building level interdisciplinary teams and as a team collaborator with general education teaching colleagues. Students then carefully consider the special education teacher’s role as an advocate for students with special needs and their families. Finally, students examine classroom management strategies that promote a positive teaching-learning environment that supports all students. (Staff, Fall and Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 081 Teaching for Equity This seminar establishes the foundations for effective teaching. As students develop keen observation skills they examine human development processes as manifested in classrooms. They explore the teacher’s complex role as well as the social context of schools. They are introduced to learning processes as they relate to motivation, lesson planning, and classroom management, and they study student diversity issues to insure that the needs of all students are met. In addition, the seminar outlines a framework for special education, IDEA, and curricular and instructional adaptation. (Collins /Hussain Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 082-01 Teaching Reading and Writing in the Elementary School This seminar, in conjunction with the accompanying field placement, shows students contemporary approaches for assessing and teaching reading and writing in elementary schools. Topics include emergent literacy and beginning reading, as well as encouraging reading for pleasure and promoting reading and writing to learn. Attention is given to issues of vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonics, word recognition, fluency, and comprehension, to a range of children including children with special needs and to speakers of other languages. The seminar addresses the New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards and the P-6 Common Core Learning Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy. (Temple, Spring, offered annually).

EDUC 082-02 Teaching Reading and Writing in the Secondary School This seminar, in conjunction with the accompanying field placement, shows students contemporary approaches for assessing and teaching reading and writing in all subjects taught in secondary schools. Attention is given to developing vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension in reading, and to strategies for writing to learn. Accommodations for students with special needs are considered, along with teaching speakers of other languages. The seminar addresses the New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards and the P-12 Common Core Learning Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy. (Temple, Fall, offered annually).

EDUC 083-02 Teaching Secondary Science This seminar focuses on inquiry teaching and learning approaches to science. Students engage in a variety of science activities designed to model different teaching strategies. They analyze their lessons, incorporate technology where appropriate, and adapt curriculum to meet the needs of all students. Students are encouraged to be reflective about their practice. Local, state and national resources are addressed with an emphasis on New York State Learning Standards. (MaKinster, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-03 Teaching Secondary Social Studies The purpose of this seminar is to acquaint students with social studies teacher certification requirements, the literature and professional organizations that serve as resources in social studies instruction, the process and substance of curriculum (with emphasis on New York State Learning Standards), and issues that are central to social studies instruction in the United States. Students make connections between what they are seeing in their field placements and what they are learning in the seminars. Included in the course is the use of instructional technology in teaching, evaluative techniques, and integrating the social dimension into geographic concepts. Readings include the New York State Resource Guide, Drake and Nelson’s Engagement in Teaching History, selected literature for young people and selected articles from social studies journals. (Gibbon/Hussain, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-04 Teaching Secondary English This seminar examines the theoretical and practical dimensions of effective teaching and learning in secondary English classrooms. Students reflect on their field-based experiences in secondary school settings and make connections to the reading and writing processes. They design, assess and analyze lessons that incorporate the New York State Learning Standards, adapting the curriculum to meet the needs of all students when appropriate. They review the journals and organizations that support the profession and develop an understanding of educational technology and its function in the English classroom. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-05 Teaching Secondary Foreign Language This seminar addresses teaching, learning, and curriculum for students pursuing adolescent certification to teach a foreign language. After studying second language acquisition, students explore methods and techniques of teaching a language other than English as well as ways of developing cross-cultural understanding among adolescents. In addition to becoming familiar with New York State Learning Standards for teaching foreign language and other resources for teaching language, students explore ways to utilize technology and discuss means of assessing student achievement. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-06 Teaching Secondary Math This seminar focuses on mathematics pedagogy that emphasizes problem solving, connections between mathematics and other disciplines, student-centered discourse, and authentic assessment in the contexts of New York State and national standards. Students develop and analyze lessons that incorporate appropriate technology to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Students reflect on their experiences in the concurrent field placement. (Kehle, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-07 Teaching the Arts: Visual Art (P-12) This seminar addresses the theory and practice of teaching the visual arts. After examining the artistic development of students in preschool through high school, students concentrate on developing methods of teaching the arts at all grade levels. Students design and critique arts lessons, which meet the New York State Learning Standards for the Arts. Students also examine methods and techniques for assessing student performance in the arts, discuss ways of adapting arts activities to meet the needs of all students, and explore means of teaching the arts across the curriculum. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-08 Teaching Elementary School Mathematics This seminar focuses on how children construct mathematical understanding and on pedagogy that facilitates the learning of mathematics. The emphasis is on designing and using child-centered explorations supported by multiple representations and by balanced attention to developing both procedural fluency and conceptual understanding. Students learn how to develop mathematical curiosity and appreciation, and how to help all children become confident mathematical problem solvers. The seminar is informed by National and New York State Learning Standards and is driven by the goal of becoming a reflective teacher of mathematics. (Kehle, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 083-09 Teaching Elementary School Science This seminar focuses on inquiry teaching methods to teach and learn science. Students engage in a variety of science activities designed to model different strategies. They analyze and assess their lessons, incorporate technology where appropriate, and adapt curriculum to meet the needs of all students. They are encouraged to be reflective about their practice. Local, state and national resources are available, with an emphasis on the New York State Learning Standards. (MaKinster, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 083-10 Teaching the Arts: Music (P-12) This seminar addresses the theory and practice of teaching the both choral and instrumental music, . After examining the musical development of students in preschool through high school, students concentrate on developing methods of teaching music at all grade levels. Students design and critique music lessons, which meet the New York State Learning Standards for the Arts. Students also examine methods and techniques for assessing student performance in music, discuss ways of adapting music activities to meet the needs of all students, and explore means of teaching the music across the curriculum. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 083-11 Teaching English Language Learners This seminar is required of those pursuing certification as Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, and is available, with the instructor’s permission, to students enrolled in other teacher preparation programs at the Colleges. Methods, materials, and assessment for teaching English Language Learners are covered. (Staff, Spring, offered annually).  

EDUC 084 Curriculum and Instruction In this seminar, students examine long-term curriculum development. After discussing curriculum theory students choose a theme in an area of the curriculum that they wish to explore and develop a “curriculum project” (short course or teaching unit), which could be used to teach their specific theme over a period of several weeks. Attention is given to aligning curricula with New York State Learning Standards and developing integrated curricula as well as adapting curricula for students with special needs. Students also examine a number of models of teaching. Groups of students are assigned different models of teaching, design lesson plans illustrating those models, and present those lessons for analysis. Assessment is also discussed in terms of the curriculum projects that students develop. (Collins/Gibbon, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 085 Protecting Children: Policies and Practices This seminar focuses on three main areas of special need: substance abuse, identification and reporting of child abuse and maltreatment, and families in conflict. Students are informed about alcohol and other drugs, the physical and behavioral indicators of substance abuse, and mandated reporting procedures. The seminar provides an array of options for teachers who are confronted by problems raised by substance abuse. Students are given alternative means for creating safe and nurturing learning environments for all students, including instruction in fire and arson prevention, preventing child abduction, and providing safety education. Family dynamics, factors in the home, and the development of a sense of community and mutual respect are given special consideration. (Gibbon, Fall and Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 200 Philosophy of Education This course is designed to help students articulate and critically examine their own philosophical notions of education. It addresses questions such as: What is education? What are the aims of education?
What does it mean to be educated? What are the processes of education? What should be the relationship between education and society? Throughout the course, an emphasis is placed upon conceptual analysis of the problems of education in terms of contemporary educational practice. (Collins, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 201 Schooling and Social Equality This course traces a social and political history of American schooling. Beginning with the meteoric rise of formal schooling in the 19th century, the course examines how the common schooling movement radically transformed the economic and political significance of education in America. Next, the course follows the schooling experiences of groups systemically targeted by policy makers: European immigrant, working class, Indigenous, Chicano/a, Black, new immigrant and women of each group. We shall seek to understand the significance of schooling for various communities as well as the reforms produced from resistance and contestation. (Hussain, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 202 Human Growth and Development This is a survey of the major theories of human development. Topics include the progression and determinants of the development of personality, intelligence, language, social competence, literacy, and artistic and music ability. Readings are taken from works by Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Gardner, Gilligan, and others. (Staff, offered annually)

EDUC 203 Children with Disabilities The intent of this course is for students to develop a thorough understanding of and sensitivity to children and youth who experience disabilities. The course examines the following questions: How does society determine who has disability? What impact does labeling have on children’s lives? How special is special education? What are the various disabilities children may experience? How do children with disabilities fit in the mainstream of American life? Disabilities will be explored from a variety of perspectives (family, social, legal, education, etc.) There is a service-learning component to this course. (Kelly, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 208 Teaching, Learning and Popular Culture This course examines the spaces where school, youth, and popular culture intersect. It looks at the ways popular culture and education oppose each other and investigates reasons why. Since young people are often at the center of this disconnect, students explore how they shape and reflect popular culture, how the meaning of youth shifts over time, how they use popular culture to learn, and how they negotiate disconnects between their lived experiences outside of school and what goes on in school. This course also looks at the multiple ways youth and teachers are constructed in various pop culture forms. Students examine how markers of identity like, race, class, gender, ability, age and sexuality are represented and what this means for educational practice and policy. (Staff, Fall, offered occasionally)

EDUC 220 Storytelling and the Oral Tradition Storytelling is the oldest form of teaching. Knowing how to marshal words, voice, gestures, and meaning to orchestrate an audience's imaginative experience is still an essential part of any communicator's competence, whether in leadership, peace building, religious education, teaching, or artistic performance. The scholarship concerning story and the oral tradition is hefty and interesting, and students will read from it. The main emphasis of the course is developing skill as storytellers, as students consider dozens of stories from many traditions and practice telling stories in many ways to different audiences both in and out of class. The course is intended to fulfill a performing arts goal. (Temple, Spring, offered)

EDUC 221 Understanding Autism This course provides an introduction to the complexities and controversies surrounding Autism Spectrum Disorders. The course begins with an examination of behavioral, social, language, and cognitive characteristics of Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and other conditions referred to under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The controversy surrounding possible causes of autism is discussed. The course also involves an in-depth study of research regarding current educational and behavioral intervention strategies for Autism, including the controversies surrounding various treatment approaches. (McCabe, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 222 Learning, Teaching, Schools, and Mathematics Contemporary society—through the sciences, many jobs, industries, health issues, economic theories, and technologies—depends upon mathematics and quantitative literacy. Mathematical knowledge has also been part of human culture since the earliest civilizations. Being more informed about mathematics education helps students be more responsive to contemporary educational issues. Student interest determines topics selected from: effective pedagogy, the cognitive nature of mathematical problem solving, the roles of mathematics in education and society, state and federal standards, comparative education, curriculum, assessment, and equity. Cross-listed with Cognition, Logic and Language. (Kehle, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 225 Contemporary Concepts in Educational Leadership Educational settings are being newly defined by technology and globalization.  As access to global networks continues to spur an interconnectedness, today's educators must navigate environments where complex social challenges exist, resource allocations are unpredictable and systems are consistently impacted by external forces, such new policy or laws from state or federal governments.  Contemporary educational leaders must engage across difference, identify critical needs, build coalitions, manage uncertainty and collaborate with stakeholders.  This course is designed to provide a conceptual framework of leadership theory as well as introduce a variety of change models that can be applied within educational settings. (MaKinster and Forbes, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 230 Teaching English Language Learners While the number of school children speaking a language other than English at home has been growing exponentially over the last few decades, their level of academic achievement has lagged significantly behind that of their language-majority peers. This course aims to contribute to preparing future teachers for working in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. One of its major goals is to give students a better understanding of the cognitive, linguistic, and emotional challenges involved in being schooled in a second language. In the first part of the course, therefore, through readings and discussions, students will become acquainted with some key theoretical frameworks for understanding second language and literacy development as well as sociocultural issues particularly relevant to the education of English language learners. The second major goal of the course is to provide students with pedagogical strategies for adjusting instruction to meet the needs of English language learners in the mainstream classroom. This goal will be achieved in the second part of the course, which will consist predominantly of  lesson planning workshops and teaching demonstrations. The course will have a service learning component consisting of 15-20 hours of tutoring an English language learner.(Staff, Fall, offered annually)

EDUC 231 Linguistics and English Grammar for Teaching English as a Second Language This course aims to provide an introduction to the study of language to all students interested in the way language works. Students will learn linguistics by  "doing linguistics", that is, by analyzing language data both in contrived exercises and in "live" samples (billboard signs, newspaper headlines, etc.). They will gain a basic understanding of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and language variation, and of the ways in which language is represented in writing. The course also aims to develop students' awareness of basic English grammar and to enable them to explain its rules to learners of English as a second or foreign language. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 252 History of Disability This course is an overview of historical perspectives of disability and special education using a social justice paradigm for analysis. This course has a larger goal of deconstructing concepts of normalcy and deviance as social and educational mechanisms. In addition, this course focuses on the historical significance of: the evolution of the specific terms and labels in the special education and special service fields as related to religious, social/cultural, medical, psychological and educational fields; past and present philosophies related to educational definitions, labeling issues and identification of individuals with disabilities; past and current factors that influence the overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals in special education programs; historical legal treatment of individuals with disabilities; current legal mandates and policies that influence special education programs; social movements and their influence on perspectives toward deviancy within our society; special education and its impact on the field of education. (Pliner, Spring, offered occasionally)

EDUC 301 Drama in a Developmental Context Students in this course study the relationship between dramatic experience and human development with an eye toward examining the educational potential of drama. In addition to exploring various perspectives on drama in education, students complete readings that analyze the functions of drama in human development. The course runs as a workshop/seminar in which students experience and analyze various methods of using drama for educational purposes. Students also develop a drama project, which they teach to a group of local children. (Collins, Spring)

EDUC 302 Disability in China This course uses the lens of state and society reform to examine disability in mainland China. The course begins with an introduction to limited services for individuals with disabilities before 1949 (establishment of the People’s Republic of China), and then examines reforms in society that impacted this population since 1949. A significant portion of this course is spent studying disability and society in China after 1978, the beginning of the reform period. While the course focuses on disability, readings include more broadly focused works to introduce students to the context of China in which persons with disabilities live. (McCabe, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 304 Representations, Inferences, and Meanings Learning, teaching, research, artistic expression, and everyday life all involve making sense of aspects of the world around us. In these activities, and across diverse disciplines, humans employ the same fundamental cognitive mechanisms and processes but generate very different results: mathematical proofs, poetry, scientific or historical explanations, paintings, etc. Students use cognitive science frameworks to trace the roles played by different ways of representing and connecting thoughts, and to explore how they simultaneously enable and constrain understanding. Students analyze episodes of sense making and become more aware of their own cognition and better able to help others construct meaning. Cross-listed with Cognition, Logic and Language. (Kehle, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 306 Technology for Children with Disabilities This course will actively explore the ways in which assistive technology (AT) and universal design for learning (UDL) can assist children with disabilities to increase their participation in education, community, and home environments, and will include social, legal, ethical, and ecological factors relating to children with disabilities and the use of AT and UDL. Participants will explore various technologies from non-electronic ‘low-tech’ to ‘high tech’ devices, as well as AT that enhances learning, communication, mobility and access. Participants will learn strategies to assess AT and the strengths and needs of children with disabilities, and will examine issues of independent living and self-determination. Participants will have hands-on opportunities to use a wide variety of AT. There is a service-learning component to the class. (Kelly, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 307 Civil Rights Education Educational opportunity has been a cornerstone in ongoing struggles for civil rights in America. This course will trace the stories and struggles of historical actors that aimed to achieve educational opportunity and redefined the relationship between education and civil rights along the way. Throughout the highly interactive course, students will employ an historical framework to critically assess the significance of school reform efforts as they relate to social justice. Students will also undertake a critical and personal exploration of human agency in struggles for reform, especially with respect to school reform. (Hussain, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 320 Children’s Literature Children’s literature is roughly as old as the United States, and in recent years it has evolved into the most energetic branch of the publishing industry, with works in the genres of folk tales, poetry, picture books, "easy readers," informational books, chapter books, and novels for middle grades and young adults. Children’s books regularly spawn films, and even as we speak the medium is rapidly becoming digital. Children’s books can be read carefully for their literary qualities, and are an interesting testing ground for skills in literary criticism. Children’s books have been part of the effort to promote multicultural education and social justice in the schools, too; and with the recent robust push-back of conservative religious and political books for children, it is useful to examine the political and social dimension of children’s literature. This course examines a set of children’s books from many angles, and is suitable for those interested in writing or publishing for children, for future teachers, and for people interested in literature generally. (Temple, Fall, offered alternate years).

EDUC 323 Comparative and International Education Schools in Finland do a far better job of educating students from all corners of society than American schools, by pursuing approaches that are virtually the opposite of what policy-makers in the US are currently demanding. Research methods from comparative education can guide us as we ask what other countries do that might succeed in our own context. In recent decades the Education for All initiative has brought millions more students into the primary school classrooms of poor countries. Yet in 2013 few sixth graders in Mali could read a sentence, and of the high school seniors in Liberia who took university entrance exams, none passed. International education is the study of what the children's educational needs are in developing countries, what is being done about them, and what is working. This course is a survey of both comparative and international education, with case studies from countries with both high and low educational achievement. (Temple, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 332 Disability, Family, and Society In this course, students examine the experiences of individuals with disabilities and their families. Students learn about issues of family and disability at the individual, school, and societal level, including an introduction to multicultural and international perspectives on these issues. Students learn about different ways to understand families that incorporate environmental and social influences. Both the challenges and unique positive impacts of having a family member with a disability will be discussed. Family experiences are explored through readings that include research reports, family accounts, and first-person narratives. (Staff, offered occasionally)

EDUC 333 Literacy Sixty million adult Americans are said to be functionally illiterate. So are nearly a billion other adults on the planet. In this course, we consider what these people are missing, in terms of ways of thinking and seeing the world as well as in civic and economic life. Then we will plunge into what we might do to help them. Solutions are not simple. We will need to explore the history of the English conventions of writing and spelling, the linguistic basis for reading skill, and “best practices” of teaching reading and writing. Since promoting literacy is a major concern of the international development community, the course will briefly consider international literacy efforts like Education for All, EGRA, and the work of CODE-Canada, and other agencies. The course is relevant to those interested in educational aspects of public policy, international development, and teaching in the schools. It will also be useful to students involved in tutoring projects such as America Reads. (Temple, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 336 Special Topics in Education The purpose of this series of courses is to investigate a variety of specific, salient social issues in the field of education. Current topics include Self-Determination in Special Education & Transition and Disability: Life after High School. Prerequisite: faculty recommendation. (Repeatable) (Staff)

EDUC 338 Inclusive Schooling This course focuses on children with special needs within the larger context of general education and public school. Students discuss and debate the following issues: Who are schools for? How has society historically perceived children with disabilities? In what ways has the creation of special education impacted the field of education? Are inclusionary schools too idealistic to work? Is the merger of general and special education beneficial for all students? The class examines models of inclusive classrooms and schools with teachers, parents, students, and administrators who presently work in inclusive settings. Site visits are included. (Staff, offered occasionally)

EDUC 346 Technology in Education This course explores the relationship between the evolution of educational technology and the pedagogical purposes that technology serves. Beginning with an examination of educational technology throughout the 20th century students explore ways in which educational technology is currently used, and might be used, to create opportunities for meaningful learning. Some of the topics explored are historical patterns of technology use, identity in online environments, communities of practice, the digital divide, apprenticeship, geospatial technologies, and Web 2.0 technology. (MaKinster, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 348 Our National Parks The U.S. National Park Service functions to preserve unique and invaluable cultural resources throughout the country. At the same time, our parks serve a number of more personal purposes. They renew our spirits, provide endless formal and informal educational opportunities and are diverse settings for recreational activities. Students explore our National Park system from educational, historical, sociological, cultural, scientific, political and economic perspectives. Controversies abound when one examines the history and current state of our parks. At the same time, contemporary threats to our parks include financial troubles, overuse by the public, pollution, industry pressures and political agendas. The complexity of these situations creates a series of educational challenges in terms of helping visitors, regional citizens and politicians make well-informed personal and political decisions. This course may require at least two weekend field trips. (MaKinster, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 349 The Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry in Schools Teaching science effectively requires teachers to understand how to engage students in scientific inquiry and create meaningful contexts for learning. Students will explore the nature of science and scientific knowledge and examine the similarities and differences between the lives of professional scientists and what K-12 students can do in classroom settings. Topics include identifying reliable curriculum resources, supporting students in learning, assessment, creating real-world contexts, how social and cultural aspects manifest themselves in science classrooms, and how to make science engaging and enjoyable. (MaKinster, Fall, alternate years)

EDUC 360 Teaching for a Sustainable Environment Teaching to help solve environmental problems must occur across all segments of society: homes, schools, places of work, business and industry, laboratories, political arenas, and recreational venues. Teaching is defined very broadly as any action directed at people or institutions to promote a sustainable environment. Students examine the roles of ethical reasoning and critical pedagogy in helping address educational challenges posed by conflicting value systems. Students design projects to meet related environmental education needs on campus or in the surrounding community. Prerequisites: At least one course in environmental studies. Cross-listed with Environmental Studies. (Kehle, Fall, offered alternate years)

EDUC 370 Social Foundations of Multiculturalism This course examines the institution of schooling, broadly conceived, as it is positioned in a multicultural and diverse society. It looks at historical and contemporary debates surrounding the concept of multiculturalism and explores how the ideas are played out in U.S. education systems and in our everyday, public and private social experiences. Students examine the relationship of schooling to other societal institutions in order to understand the academic, political, and social effects on students and society. Throughout the course students tackle topics with an eye for meaningful incorporation of personal and systemic dimensions of diversity and broaden their knowledge about being responsible citizens of the world. (Staff, Spring, offered occasionally)

EDUC 401 Analysis of Teaching in Secondary School This course is open only to adolescent teacher certification participants engaged as full-time student teachers. It provides a structure within which participants critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development, with the goal of becoming reflective practitioners. Texts and readings are selected from those that provide analysis of the experience of secondary school education, as well as those that provide rationales for the methods and purposes of the academic disciplines. Students must pass this course with a grade of C or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 402-403 Practicum in Secondary School Teaching This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activity, in a middle or high school classroom (in their area of certification), for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibilities normally accepted by secondary school teachers. These include supervision of students, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 404 Analysis of Teaching in Elementary and Special Education This course is open only to elementary and special education teacher certification program participants engaged as full-time student teachers. It provides student teachers with an opportunity to critique education as it is offered in school settings for all children. Participants focus on becoming reflective practitioners as they critically examine teaching, learning, and curriculum development. Emphasis is placed on application of the above to the teaching of English Language Arts. Students must pass this course with a grade of C or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, offered each semester)

EDUC 405-406 Practicum in Elementary School Teaching This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activities in an elementary school classroom setting for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibility normally accepted by elementary school teachers. These include supervision of children, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, offered each semester)

EDUC 407 Practicum in Teaching Children with Special Needs This is full-time student teaching, taken in tandem with EDUC 405 during the second seven weeks of the semester. Students complete student teaching (as described in EDUC 405 above) in elementary special education settings. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Kelly/Baker, offered each semester)

EDUC 410 Analysis of Teaching in the Disciplines This professional field-based seminar focuses on the development of a deeper understanding of the disciplinary content the student teacher is teaching. Through weekly conversations with his or her student-teaching college supervisor, the student will develop a more advanced understanding of how content knowledge combines with pedagogical content knowledge in effective teaching. Weekly observations of the student teacher by the supervisor and readings selected from educational journals and books will support these conversations. This seminar supports students as they prepare for and take the edTPA student teacher assessment. Occasional group meetings may be held. (Staff, offered each semester)

EDUC 412 Analysis of Teaching the Arts This course is open only to students pursuing certification in art who are engaged in full-time student teaching. It provides a structure within which students critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development within the arts, with an eye towards helping students become reflective practitioners. Emphasis is placed upon helping students meet the developmental needs of all students (P-12) while also exploring means of helping all learners meet the New York State Learning Standards in the Arts. Students must pass this course with a grade of C or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Staff, offered each semester)

EDUC 420 Research in Education Open only to students enrolled in the Master of Arts in Teaching Program, this course is a survey of educational research methods with a special emphasis on qualitative and teacher-generated research. The course is intended to support students as they prepare and present a proposal for a master’s thesis. Typical readings: Bogdan and Biklen, Qualitative Research for Education; Wolcott, Writing Up Qualitative Research. Prerequisite: Admission to the MAT Program. (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 450 Independent Study

EDUC 460 Baccalaureate Seminar: Moral and Ethical Issues in Education The course focuses on ethical and moral issues central to the process of education and the experience of schooling. Participants are expected to develop a position paper in which a point of view pertaining to a specific issue is articulated. (Staff, Spring, offered alternate years)

EDUC 495 Honors

EDUC 601 Analysis of Teaching in Secondary School, Graduate Level This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the adolescent teacher certification program. It provides a structure within which participants critically examine their classroom experiences of teaching, learning, and curriculum development, with the goal of becoming reflective practitioners. Texts and readings are selected from those that provide analysis of the experience of secondary school education, as well as those that provide rationales for the methods and purposes of the academic disciplines. Students must pass this course with a grade of B- or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 602-603 Graduate Practicum in Secondary School Teaching These courses are open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the adolescent teacher certification program. This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activities, in a middle or high school classroom (in their area of certification), for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibilities normally accepted by secondary school teachers. These include supervision of students, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Gibbon, offered each semester)

EDUC 604 Analysis of Teaching in Elementary and Special Education, Graduate Level This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood or childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification programs. It provides student teachers with an opportunity to critique education as it is offered in school settings for all children. Participants focus on becoming reflective practitioners and on developing and implementing curriculum to meet the needs of diverse student populations. Emphasis is placed on application of the above to the teaching of reading. Recent research pertaining to education is discussed. Students must pass this course with a grade of B- or better in order to be recommended for certification. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Sherman, offered each semester)

EDUC 605-606 Graduate Practicum in Elementary School Teaching These courses are open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood or childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification programs. This is full-time student teaching. Students plan and direct instructional and ancillary activities in an elementary school classroom setting for a full semester. It is expected that the student take on all responsibility normally accepted by elementary school teachers. These include supervision of children, curriculum planning and evaluation, reporting to parents, direction of paraprofessionals and classroom assistants, and participation in professional conferences or in-service training sessions. Students are guided by their cooperating teacher and are observed weekly by a college supervisor. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Harris, offered each semester)

EDUC 607 Graduate Practicum in Teaching Children with Special Needs This course is open only to graduate students engaged as full-time student teachers in the childhood and students with disabilities teacher certification program. This is full-time student teaching, taken in tandem with EDUC 605 during the second seven weeks of the semester. Students complete student teaching (as described in EDUC 605 above) in elementary special education settings. This course must be taken credit/no credit. Prerequisites: Completion of all other teacher certification requirements. (Kelly/McCabe, offered each semester)

EDUC 801 & 803 Master’s Project Students will complete a graduate level integrative group project that addresses an issue of educational relevance. This project will analyze an educational issue from multiple perspectives and develop a set of presentations will be presented publically (e.g., Senior Symposium, Community Engaged Scholarship Forum, community meeting with stakeholders, conference presentation).  (Staff, Spring, offered annually)

EDUC 801 Master’s Project (Fall)

EDUC 802 Master’s Thesis (Spring)

EDUC 820 Graduate Seminar in Education Research Students will explore educationally relevant research and practices through the course and individually produce a literature review addressing an area of focus. An outside faculty reader must be identified who will review the final literature review. Prerequisite: EDUC 420 (Staff, Spring, offered annually)