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The Biology Department offers majors a solid foundation in modern biology providing breadth in biological study through an array of diverse course topics and the opportunity for advanced coursework and independent investigation within the framework of a liberal arts curriculum. Completion of certain core courses is required for all majors. The required core courses include BIOL 167 Introductory Topics, BIOL 212 Biostatistics, and BIOL 460 Senior Seminar. However, because biology is a diverse discipline united by common principles, our curriculum allows students to select many electives courses. Elective courses are organized into two categories that represent different types of questioning and different levels of analysis within biology. Equal distribution of elective choices from these two categories ensures that students are exposed to a breadth of biological sub-disciplines which analyze levels of organization from molecules and cells to evolutionary and population thinking.
Biology offers two disciplinary majors, a B.A. and a B.S., and a disciplinary minor. Only courses completed with a grade of C- or better, both departmental and cognate, may count toward the major or minor. Bidisciplinary courses do not typically count toward a biology major.
3xx courses are new courses planned for future years.
Table 1: Biology electives listed by categories. Category A largely reflects sub-disciplines that consider “within” organism processes. Category B largely reflects sub-disciplines that consider “between” or “among” organism processes and population analyses.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR (B.A.)
disciplinary, 12 courses
Nine biology courses, seven of which must be completed at HWS or as part of HWS-sponsored abroad programs. Biology courses must include BIOL 167, BIOL 212, and BIOL 460. The remaining six courses are electives, three of which must be completed at the 200-level and three of which must be completed at the 300-level. Of the six biology electives for the BA, three must be completed in Category A and three in Category B (see Table 1). BIOL 450 Independent Study may substitute for one 300-level biology course. Completion of BIOL 495 Honors may substitute for BIOL 460. Other required courses are MATH 130, CHEM 110, and CHEM 240.
At least six courses must be unique to the major. All courses for the major must be completed with a grade of C- or better. Of the nine biology courses for the BA, seven must be HWS courses or as part of HWS-sponsored abroad programs. At least five biology courses must have a laboratory. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR (B.S.)
disciplinary, 16 courses
All of the requirements for the B.A. major, plus one additional 200- or 300-level course from biology, and three more courses from chemistry, computer science, geoscience, mathematics, physics or psychology. Of the 10 biology courses for the BS, seven must be completed at HWS or as part of HWS-sponsored abroad programs. At least five biology courses must have a laboratory. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the major.
Progressing through the major: During the first year, students are advised to complete BIOL 167 and either one more course in biology or at least one of the cognate courses of the major (CHEM 110, CHEM 240, or MATH 130). BIOL 212 must be completed by the end of the sophomore year and is required for entry into all 300-level biology courses. We expect most students to complete their 200-level electives by the end of the junior year, and 300-level courses should be taken mainly by juniors and seniors. 300-level electives require completion of BIOL 212 Biostatistics and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which should be in the same category (Table 1) as the 300-level course. BIOL 460 Senior Seminar is intended as a capstone course, integrating information presented in the first three years, and is normally completed during the senior year. Honors research in Biology (BIOL 495) may substitute for BIOL 460 with an adviser’s permission.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR
disciplinary, 6 courses
BIOL 167 and five additional biology courses. Students minoring in biology should work with a biology adviser to select courses that best compliment your major and your career goals. All courses must be passed with a grade of C- or higher. Credit/no credit courses cannot be counted towards the minor.
Policies on C/NC and course repeats
All BIOL courses towards the major or minor must be taken for a grade. CR/NC courses will not count. Any courses repeated for a better grade must be repeated in full—both laboratory and lecture components need to be repeated.
BIOL 212 substitution
Students may substitute other statistics courses in place of BIOL 212. Statistics courses on campus, such as in Psychology of Economics, can be substituted with the permission of your adviser. Statistics courses from off campus must be petitioned for approval using the petition form.
Taking biology courses in HWS abroad programs: Most courses in biology in HWS-sponsored abroad programs (e.g. Denmark, South America, and Australia) require only an introductory level background in biology, which is the same requirement for our 200-level courses. Therefore, students will be allowed to substitute abroad courses for 200-level electives only. If two biology courses are taken in abroad programs, each will count as 200-level elective and regardless of course content, students will be given credit for one category A and one category B elective. If only one biology course is taken abroad, the student will work with their adviser to determine the category the course will count in—both course content and the student’s academic plan will be taken into account. This policy for abroad courses simplifies advising for students, ensures that students benefit from our faculty’s expertise in their advanced courses, and allows students to be exposed to the breadth of biological disciplines through their coursework at HWS.
Courses taken at other institutions, which are not affiliated with HWS-sponsored abroad programs, are considered on a case-by-case basis. Students must petition the department for these courses to count towards their Biology degree. Petitions forms can be downloaded here.
BIOL 167 Topics in Introductory Biology These courses, while focused on a range of topics, are designed to help you (1) distinguish between scientific inquiry and other modes of inquiry; (2) articulate in general terms the central concepts of biology, including the process of evolution through natural selection, the central role of DNA, RNA, and proteins in living organisms, and the inheritance of genetic information; (3) ask relevant biological questions, develop scientific hypotheses, and design experiments to test hypotheses; and (4) explain the relevance of biological knowledge to society. Each course includes laboratory sessions. Prerequisites: none. (Offered every semester)
Sample topic introductory courses:
BIOL 212 Biostatistics This course is required for the major. The concepts presented in this class are applied in nature and require, as background, only an elementary knowledge of algebra and the desire to learn. Subjects discussed include probability as a mathematical system, various probability distributions and their parameters, combinatorics, parameter estimation, confidence intervals, t-tests, various chi-square applications, one- and two-way analysis of variance, correlation, and simple linear regression. The course includes an introduction to statistical computing on Macintosh computers utilizing standard statistical packages. Prerequisite: BIOL 167 or permission of instructor. (Brown, Cosentino, Droney, offered each semester)
BIOL 215 Population Genetics This course introduces students to major concepts in population genetics and microevolutionary theory. Students will explore evolutionary processes responsible for the origin and maintenance of genetic diversity in populations. To address the broader importance of genetic diversity, students will also examine applications of population genetics in medicine, conservation, forensics, agriculture, and anthropology. Topics include microevolution, quantitative genetics, molecular evolution, and molecular ecology. Laboratories will emphasize population genetic models and experimental design using computer simulations and molecular techniques. Students will discuss case studies from the primary literature and develop quantitative skills by analyzing and interpreting empirical data. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167 (Cosentino, offered annually)
BIOL 220 General Genetics This course serves as an introduction to both traditional transmission genetics and modern molecular genetics. The major topics considered are the structure of genetic material, its replication, its transmission, and its expression. Special emphasis is placed on classical principles of transmission genetics, and on the central features of gene action, i.e., transcription and translation. The course, involving lectures and laboratory experience with both animal and plant systems, is required for all biology majors. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Kenyon, Parent-Cursino, offered annually)
BIOL 222 Microbiology This course provides a broad introduction to microorganisms. Students are given an opportunity to both examine microbes from the traditional vantage of microscopes and colonies, and enter the current conversation on and techniques using microorganisms. Students will learn how scientists harvest the power of microbes from creating medicines to cleaning the environment. Microbiology is a multi-disciplinary field and this course will allow students to explore genetics, molecular biology, bioinformatics, evolution, environmental science, biochemistry, and immunology. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Mowery, offered annually)
BIOL 225 Ecology This course is an introduction to ecological theories as they apply to individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered include physiological ecology, population dynamics, competition, predation, community structure, diversity, and the movement of materials and energy through ecosystems. The laboratory is designed to provide experience with sampling techniques and an introduction to the methods of experimental ecology. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Brown, Newell, offered annually)
BIOL 227 Behavioral Ecology The specific behaviors employed by organisms to solve the “problems” associated with survival and reproduction have been shaped through time by evolutionary forces. Thus, to understand why individuals behave as they do, we must understand the nature of the complex interactions between individual and the environment, including social interactions with other individuals of the same species, in the past and present. This evolutionary approach to understanding behavior is the focus of the discipline of behavioral ecology. Emphasis is placed on why organisms within populations of species vary in behavior, in addition to the more traditional approach of relating ecology and behavior across species. Topics may include social behavior and mate choice, animal and plant signaling, foraging tactics, and the genetics of behavior. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Droney, offered annually)
BIOL 228 The Biology of Plants The diversity of plants is enormous, ranging from microscopic phytoplankton to trees more than 300 feet tall. Using an evolutionary approach, students study this great diversity and follow the development of plants from the earliest photosynthetic single-celled organisms to complex flowering plants. Plant structure and function are discussed in relation to the environment in which plants live. Studies of plant anatomy, physiology, and ecology focus on flowering plants. Throughout the course, human uses of plants and plant products are highlighted. The laboratory provides hands-on experience with the plant groups discussed in lecture and an opportunity to experimentally test many of the concepts presented. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Newell, offered annually)
BIOL 232 Cell Biology An introduction to the fundamental principles that guide the functions of cells and organelles. The major topics covered are transcription and translation, cell communication and signal transduction, cellular metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis), and cell motility. These topics are studied in the context of cancer and other human diseases. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Carle, offered annually)
BIOL 233 General Physiology An introduction to the major physiological processes of animals, from the level of cells and tissues to the whole organism. A comparative examination of animals emphasizes basic physiological processes and demonstrate how animals with different selective pressures “solve problems” related to integrating the separate yet coordinate organ systems of their bodies. Students examine relationships between structure and function, mechanisms of regulation, control and integration, metabolism, and adaptation to the environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce lecture topics and emphasize an investigative approach to the measurement of physiological processes. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Deutschlander, offered annually)
BIOL 234 Vertebrate Biology Vertebrates are among the most abundant and conspicuous animals in the natural world. Topics covered include an exploration of the diversity of vertebrates, the characteristics that define each vertebrate group, and how those characteristics relate to each group’s evolution. In addition, the course covers principles of systematic biology, methods used by study vertebrates, behavior, reproduction, life history and physiology of vertebrates. The laboratory combines experiments with field trips. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167 (Ryan, offered annually)
BIOL 238 Aquatic Biology Aquatic Biology provides a working knowledge of the general biology and ecology of aquatic systems and of the organisms that make up aquatic communities. Study in the classroom and field focuses on lake systems, but also includes streams and rivers, wetlands, and ponds. Students use field and laboratory techniques to study water quality issues, community composition, and ecological interactions among aquatic organisms. With laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 167. (Brown, offered annually)
BIOL 302 Immunology Immunology is a complex, multi-discipline and evolving field of study. We will explore cellular immunology, molecular immunology and the immune system in diseases. A wide range of topics will be covered including the cells and organs of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, the structure and function of the major molecular players in the immune response, vaccines, immunity to microorganisms, immunodeficiency, transplantation and cancer. The laboratory portion will explore the molecular immunological techniques relevant to the medical and research fields. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233. (Mowery, offered annually)
BIOL 315 Advanced Topics in Biology An in-depth study of topics of current research interest. Recent examples of courses include Restoration Ecology, Field Biology, Cancer Biology, Behavioral Neurobiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which will be dependent on the designated category/topic of the course. (Staff, offered occasionally)
BIOL 316 Conservation Biology Conservation biology addresses the alarming loss of biological diversity around the globe. In this course, students will explore the causes and consequences of biodiversity loss. Emphasis will be placed on integration of ecological and evolutionary theory to address the management and protection of biodiversity. Topics include species extinction and rarity, conservation genetics, population ecology, population viability analysis, landscape ecology, land and wildlife management, and captive species management. Students will also examine social, economic, and philosophical aspects of conservation, including the role of science in environmental policy. This course combines lecture, laboratory, and discussion of the primary literature. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 215, BIOL 225, BIOL 227, BIOL 228, BIOL 234, or BIOL 238. (Cosentino, offered annually)
BIOL 320 Agroecology Agriculture dominates the landscape around Geneva and in this course we'll use ecological theory to study agricultural ecosystems, exploring how their design and management affect productivity sustainability, and the surrounding environment. Our work will focus primarily on agricultural ecosystems found locally including vineyards, orchards, row crops, organic farms, and backyard gardens. We will also consider animal production systems. We'll start by investigating how plants acquire and use resources such as light energy, water, and nutrients. Then we'll explore the impact of species interactions in agricultural systems. Finally, we'll examine impacts of management practices on species diversity and on the sustainability of agroecosystems. The laboratory will be field-based. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 215, BIOL 225, BIOL 227, BIOL 228, BIOL 234, or BIOL 238. (Newell, offered annually)
BIOL 324 Anatomy This course presents a systemic approach to the study of the human body. Course topics begin with an introduction of anatomical terminology and an overview of cellular processes and tissue classification. Students then are introduced to the gross and microscopic anatomy of the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive. Students will also develop an understanding of how these systems develop during early embryology as well as learning the clinical relevance of disease and disorders that affect anatomy. One of the goals of this course is to provide an understanding of human anatomy, which then provides the foundation for clinical diagnosis and decisions. The laboratory component of the course generally parallels and reinforces lecture concepts with practical hands-on learning. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233. (Ryan, offered annually)
BIOL 335 Molecular Biology This course is designed to provide a broad understanding of molecular biology while focusing on current research within the field. Topics covered include eukaryotic genome structure and organization, biotechnology, and control of gene expression using examples from both plant and animal systems. Laboratory exercises emphasize current molecular biology techniques focusing on one experimental system. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233. (Carle, Parent-Cursino offered annually)
BIOL 336 Evolution Evolution is often referred to as the great unifying principle of all the biological sciences. In this course, both micro-evolutionary process and macro-evolutionary patterns are discussed. Micro-evolution involves studying current evolutionary processes (such as natural selection, sexual selection, and genetic drift) using techniques from population, quantitative, and molecular genetics. Additional topics include levels of selection, adaptation, and ecological factors important for evolutionary change. Evolutionary processes also are central to the understanding of past events and, therefore, topics such as biological diversity, speciation, phylogeny, and extinction are also discussed. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 215, BIOL 225, BIOL 227, BIOL 228, BIOL 234, or BIOL 238. (Droney, offered annually)
BIOL 339 Physiological Ecology Physiological ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, with an emphasis on the physiological attributes of organisms that influence their performance in a given environment. It is also concerned with the evolution of physiological, anatomical, and biochemical characteristics of organisms, and examines the relationship of these characteristics to fitness. This course focuses on the physiological ecology of plants and provides an introduction to current research questions and methods. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 215, BIOL 225, BIOL 227, BIOL 228, BIOL 234, or BIOL 238. (Newell, offered alternate years)
BIOL 340 Neurobiology In this course students examine concepts and experimental models in cellular and systems neurobiology in order to gain a better understanding of how the nervous system is integrated to produce simple and complex behaviors. After a consideration of how individual neurons function, students examine (1) how parts of the nervous system are specialized to sense and perceive the environment, (2) how commands are initiated and modified to produce smooth, well-controlled movements, and (3) how more complex functions of the nervous system (such as emotions, language, etc.) are produced by neural networks. Because neurobiology is an inherently comparative field, students examine neural processes that demonstrate basic concepts inherent to neurological systems both in invertebrates and vertebrates (including humans). Laboratories include some computer simulations of neuronal physiology and “wet lab” experiments designed to introduce students to techniques for investigation of the neural basis of behavior. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233. (Deutschlander, offered occasionally)
BIOL 341 Developmental Biology This course presents a comprehensive view of the principles that govern how a single fertilized egg develops into a complex organism. Developmental biology is an integrative discipline that includes other fields of biology such as molecular and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, evolution, neurobiology and physiology. Through lectures and laboratory exercises, students learn the experimental approaches used by scientists to study developmental processes. With laboratory. Prerequisites: BIOL 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233. (Kenyon, offered annually)
BIOL 450 Independent Study Attendance at all biology seminars, generally held on alternate Friday afternoons, is required of all students conducting independent study. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
BIOL 460 Biology Seminar The biology seminar is intended as a capstone experience that integrates knowledge learned in previous biology courses. Seminar topics are selected by the faculty and announced in advance in the registration handbook. Past topics have included Sex, Evolution and Behavior; Genomics; Biology of Cancer. Seminars are a detailed exploration of a current topic in biology. Prerequisite: open only to senior biology majors, except with permission of the instructor. Prerequisites: Biol 212 and at least two additional 200-level courses, one of which must be from category A (BIOL 220, BIOL 222, BIOL 232, or BIOL 233) and one of which must be from category B (BIOL 215, BIOL 225, BIOL 227, BIOL 228, BIOL 234, or BIOL 238). (Offered each semester)
BIOL 495 Honors Attendance at all biology seminars held throughout the semester is required of all students doing Honors. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.